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10 important lady of history

From the ancient time the world has been male dominated society. Though in this male dominated society female made their own name. Women have grown stronger than past. They can either make or break anyone’s life. They have the power to rule the world. There have been many ladies who have ruled the world for many years, who are far better than men and who are very important in our history. Some of the important ladies of the history are as follows:

Mother Teresa:

Mother TeresaMother Teresa is one of the most important and well known ladies of in the history. She had spent a lot of her life in India she had Indian citizenship. She was of Roman Catholic. For more than 45 years of her life she had spent in caring poor as well as sick people. For her work she had also won Nobel price.


She is an American actress, singer, song writer as well as an entrepreneur. She is not as much as important ladies in the history but she is well known around the world due to her fame. She is very hard working because of which she has won so much fame. She has never stopped creating new things for which she is known.

Rosa Parks:

She was a civil rights activist. She was called “Mother of the Modern Day Civil Rights Movement” only because of her work. Firstly she had come in highlight because she had refused to give her seat to a white passenger by disobeying the bus driver. Her that acts was the biggest movement against the racial discrimination.

Elizabeth I of England:

Another important lady of the history is Queen Elizabeth. She was very different from other queens of the era. In her whole life she was never married. She is also known as “Virgin Queen”. The period which she had ruled is known as “Elizabeth Era”. She had replaced the Roman Catholic and had established the Protestantism. Because of which she was never married she was last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty.

Florence Nightingale:

Florence Nightingale was the first woman who modernized the nursing. She is also known as “The Lady with the Lamp”. At the time of Crimean War she had served many people of which she became famous. In her birthday the International Nursing Day is celebrated. Because of her belief that the more death is due to lack of poor nutrition, she reduced the death rate by providing them nutritious food.


Tomyris was the queen Massagetae. She is known for defeating as well as killing the Persian emperor Cyrus and also for wining her country. She had sent a letter by challenging the Cyrus because he had captured her son. In the fight he was killed and the Persians were defeated by great casualties. She had kept Cyrus’s head till her whole life and also drank wine from it until her death.


Cleopatra was the last ruler of the Ancient Egypt. She was the woman with beauty and brain. She was one of the members of the Ptolemaic dynasty. She was a great ruler. She had co ruled with her father, Ptolemy XII Auletes and after her father’s death she co ruled with her brothers. After the marriage she became the sole ruler.

Eva Peron:

Eva was the First Lady of Argentina. After her marriage she became most powerful woman within the Pro-Peronist trade unions. She was the most politically powerful woman at her time. She had made homes for poor and homeless people. She had also provided free health care to the whole citizens. Because of her work she soon became very popular and her name appeared everywhere.


She was one of the most powerful and successful female ruler. She had ruled much longer than any other woman has ruled. She had reestablished the trade networks which had been disrupted. She had made a foreign policy mainly focusing about peace and had made a successful military campaign.

Hillary Clinton:

Hillary was the first wife of President Bill Clinton. She is the first lady of the United States. She has contributed a lot in the health sector as well as in political sector. She is the United States Secretary. She had made history by running President herself.

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10 historical most powerful women of all time

Women, she is the most beautiful creature created by nature. They are not so weak as they seem to be. Women are much powerful and strong than they seem to be. They can do anything what they want to do. There are a lot of women who had contributed to develop the world. Here are some of them.


Hatshepsut(Born: 1508 BC – died: 1458 BC): In the ancient time Hatshepsut was one of the most powerful woman. In the Egyptian history Hatshepsut had ruled longer than any other woman. She was the fifth ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. Later on after the death of her father she began rule with her husband. She was one of the most successful queens of the Ancient Egypt. She had married to her half-brother Thutmose II.

2.Eleanor of Aquitaine

Eleanor-of-Aquitaine(Born: 1122 –  died: 1204):  During the High Middle Age in Europe Eleanor was one of the most powerful and wealthiest women. After the death of her father ultimately she became the ruler. At that time also her family was very well educated. During the 12th Aquitaine were the wealthiest and the largest province of France.


3.Empress Theodora

Empress-Theodora(born: 500 AD – died: 548 AD) : At the time of Middle Ages Empress was one of the most powerful and influential women. She had married to Justinian I. She took power only after the death of her husband. She had participated in promoting women’s right in Constantinople, one of the world’s largest cities. She had also provided right to women for property ownership divorce. Because of cancer she died in 548 AD.





4.Isabella I of Castile

Isabella-I-of-Castile(Born: 1451 – died: 1504): In Spanish history Isabella was considered one of the most powerful yet controversial queens. Until her husband’s death she co-ruled with her husband. Isabella had contributed a lot in making Spain a world power by sponsoring Christopher Columbus’s voyages to the Western hemisphere.





5.Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth-I-of-England(Born: 1533; died: 1603): Elizabeth was the queen who was very different from other queens who had ruled over the time. She was never married. She is also known as “Virgin Queen”. She had replaced Roman Catholic and established Protestantism. As she had never married so she was the last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty. Her the period is known as “Elizabeth Era”.





6.Catherine II of Russia

Catherine-II-of-Russia(Born: 1729; died: 1796): She was the queen of the world’s largest country, Russia. She is also known as Catherine the Great. She was married to Peter III. In 1767 she had reformed the system by designing a legislative commission. She is known well expanding the Russian empire. She had also contributed in art, politics and had also made a successful foreign policy. Her rule ended with her death.





7.Queen Victoria

(Born: 1819; died: 1901): The history is Queen Victoria. She was not only the queen but also was a head of the vast colonial British Empire. She had ruled over six continents and countries like India, South Africa, Sudan, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada etc. She had contributed massively contributed in social reforms and in politics in the British Empire as well as in United Kingdom.


Cixi(Born: 1835; died: 1908): Cixi was the ruler of China. She had controlled China very effectively for 47 years. In her time she was the most powerful women in the world. She was also the last ruler of her dynasty. After three years of her death republic was initiated in 1st January 1912.






9.Ginni Rometty

(Born: 1957; present) : The present one of the most powerful woman is Ginni. She an American business woman. She is CEO, Chairman and President of IBM. She is the most powerful business women since a decade. She has married to a principal investor of Bam Oil Company, Mark Anthony Rometty.

10. Susan Wojcicki

(Born; 1968; present): Susan is an American businesswoman. She is the CEO of YouTube. She is called the most important person in advertising. She is also the most important googler. In 2011 she was named in the “List of the World’s 100 Most Powerful Women” by Forbes Magazine.

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Future of electronic vehicles

electronic vehiclesAn electric vehicle is a type of vehicle which uses electric motors for power. The power can be supplied to the electric vehicles through self-contained battery or generator which will convert fuel to electricity or through a collector system. An electric vehicle consists of electric aircraft, rail and road vehicles, underwater and surface vessels and electrically powered space vehicles.

After when Slovak-Hungarian priest Anyos Jedlik made the first viable motor with commutator, rotor and stator in 1827 tit was then when the electric motive power started. In the University of Groningen again in 1835 built a small scale electric car. In between approximately 1832 to 1839 Robert Anderson invented the first simple electric carriage which was powered by a non-rechargeable primary cell. In the US, 28% of the cars were electric cars on the road by the time of 1900. After that in the 20th century electric rail and cars transport had become the majority in the market.
Electronic vehicles are different than the fossil fuel powered vehicles. The electricity which is consumed by the EVs were generated by a wide range of sources like nuclear power and fossils fuels also by renewable sources like solar power, and the wind power, by tidal power and so on. Because of the advantages of the EVs it has attracted the interest of the market rather than the petroleum based transportation infrastructure.

Electricity sources
There are many ways to provide electricity of varying ecological desirability, efficiency and cost.
The direct connection to generation plants is common among electric trains, trolley bus and in some trolley trucks. EVs collects power from the electric power strips which buried under the road surface through electromagnetic induction.
The on-board electricity is generated for vehicles by using diesel engine, fuel cell, nuclear energy and renewable sources like solar power for diesel-electric locomotive, fuel cell vehicle, aircraft carriers and solar vehicles respectively.
Though it is possible to make any kind of vehicle with the help of an electric power train but there are mainly four types of the electric vehicles.
? Ground vehicles: It is also sub categorized into following types.
Plug-in electric vehicle: Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is a type of motor vehicle which can be recharged by any external source of electricity like wall sockets. The produced electricity is stored in a rechargeable battery packs drives.
Hybrid EVS: It is the combination of a conventional power train with some form of electric propulsion.
On and off road EVs: These are the vehicles which are used in the road transportation. They include electric trucks, electric motorcycles, electric buses, trolleybuses, Off-road vehicles etc.
Railborne EVs: The electric trains do not need to carry heavy internal batteries. They use a good power to weight ratios and its proven to be very helpful. This allows giving the high speed to the trains.
Space rover vehicles: Various unmanned or manned vehicles are used to explore the Moon or other planets of the solar system.
? Airborne EVs: From the era of aviation the aircraft having electric power has received a great deal of experimentation. The currently flying electric aircraft includes aerial vehicles which has two kinds: manned and unmanned.
? Seaborne EVs: During the 20th century electric boats were very popular. The Submarines uses nuclear power or they use the fuel cells to run it.
? Electrically powered spacecraft: Solar panels, the new invention i.e the nuclear panels and batteries are the power sources for these space crafts.


Advantages and disadvantages of EVs
Electric vehicles has a number of advantages of the. It helps in protecting the environment. They also produce comparatively very less noise pollutions. By the use of EVs we can save a lot of energy. The use of renewable sources is cheap to use. It has a significant benefit to the environment by the use the renewable sources. In Nepal there are a special kind of electric vehicle named SAFA TEMPO which helps to produce lower pollution. These vehicles are powered by using batteries rather than using gas or oil which is very economical as well. It is also very smooth to use. As the produced electricity remains within the country or region where it is produced the EVs gives high degree of energy resilience. Electric vehicles have three times higher energy efficiency compared to the internal combustion engine vehicles.
Hence it has a lot of advantages compared to the internal combustion vehicles it has a great future ahead. It is also Eco friendly and also uses energy which can be renewable and do not scare at all. It helps to make people’s life easier and more comfortable and also it’s a sheer green movement which can prove to be good for the environment too. This concept must give more emphasis for this generation and coming generations if human survival a key question.

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Electronic Cigarette

Electronic CigaretteAn electronic cigarette is a battery powered vaporizer. It feels similar to tobacco smoking. Unlike cigarette smoke electronic cigarettes produce an aerosol which is known as vapor. Generally e-cigarette has a heating element which atomizes a liquid solution which is called e-liquid. An electronic liquid is a mixture of glycerin, nicotine, propylene glycol and flavoring. An electronic cigarette is much safer than tobacco cigarette in terms of tobacco use minimization. The main reason behind using an electronic cigarette is to quit smoking cigarettes and to cut down their smoking habit.

Due to limited evidence the risk and benefit of an electronic cigarette are uncertain. As an electronic cigarette contains less toxic substances than traditional cigarettes, it is safer than traditional cigarettes. The serious effect of an electronic cigarette is mouth inflammation, throat inflammation, cough, nausea and vomiting.

The earliest electronic cigarette was made by Herbert A. Gilbert which he named it as smokeless non-tobacco cigarette. It contained moist paper and flavored air heated nicotine solution for cigarette like taste but it was never commercialized. After that a Chinese pharmacist named Hon Lik invented the electronic cigarette. Later on in 2003 he made a cigarette using piezoelectric ultrasound emitting element which used to vaporize the pressurized jet of liquid which contained nicotine diluted in propylene glycol solution. The cigarette made used to produce smoke like vapor which can be inhaled. It provided a vehicle for nicotine delivery into bloodstream through lungs. After that various design of the electronic cigarettes were introduced and were commercialized.
As time passes many electronic cigarettes were continued to evolve from first generation to third generation. In 2006 “cartomizer’ , a mechanism which is used to integrate the heating coil into liquid chamber was invented by British entrepreneurs named Umer and Tariq Sheikh. Later on in 2007 a new device named “cigalike” was launched in the UK in Gamucci brand, which is now adopted by majority. Now the international tobacco company have recognized the potential of new market and are actively involving in the production and marketing of the electronic cigarette.
Generally electronic cigarettes are of cylindrical shape with wide array. There are three types of electronic cigarettes namely; cigalikes, which looks similar to cigarettes, eGos, which is bigger than cigalikes and mods, which is assembled from basic parts of existing product.

An electronic cigarette has four generations i.e first generation, second generation, third generation and fourth generation (future).

First generation: The first generation of e-cigarettes is called “cigalikes” because it looks like tobacco cigarettes. This generation e-cigarette can be designed as a single unit which contains coil, battery and filling saturated with an electronic juice in a single tube. And can be disposed after the battery is charge less or the liquid has depleted.

Second generation: The second generation e-cigarettes are larger than first generation e-cigarettes. It looked less like tobacco cigarettes. They contained larger non removable batteries which can be charged with a USB charger.

Third generation: Third generation of this E-cig includes 2 modes viz mechanical and variable voltage device in the battery section of the box. They are generally made up of wood, aluminum, steel or brass. Hardware can be modified to increase flavor according to the user needs. The fourth generation is coming to the market very soon and is going to be in the digital format.

People, :
People nowadays are addicted to the bad habits very easily and thus cigarettes addiction is not new too . So, for a solution of this serious problem E-cigs were made and this has helped people cope up with the demand of having cigarettes and plus it does not affect the held in that adverse way as compared to the E-cigs. E-cigs though contain nicotine and are highly addictive and thus it can help for stopping the habit but not completely remove since it provides nicotine in adequate dosages. It is not recommended for heart patients and might harm the arteries as per the survey.
E-cigarettes are although safer than the cigarettes but its not that these don’t harm. As said by Drummoned “E-Cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes not unharmful”. Much information about this has not been known and we are studying about its long term effects and exposure in the society.

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10 Sciences behind making making best relationship?

“Love” it is the most beautiful and pure feelings in the world. It is the most intense feeling known to the human beings. It is the power which can motivate a person to get success in life. Love can change a bad person to good. But many relationship fails due to misunderstanding between couples. Sometimes they fail to understand each others feelings and unfortunately the misunderstanding takeover. Many people think it’s easy to make a good relationship but truth is that it takes lots of effort and maturity to handle a relationship and make it good for long time.

best relationshipHere are some of the science behind making best relationship:

Respect and admire your partner:

Everybody has some flaws but love is what to accept a person with their flaws and be happy. A research has shown that positive attitude towards your partner will be helpful to make a good and a very romantic relationship. Not only it helps to make good relationship, it also helps you to feel better about yourself and it will help to lead relationship towards happiness and success.

Protect and support the freedom:

When someone is in relationship more responsibility comes compared to single ones. One should learn to respect others feelings and should not hold them very tightly literally. One should give some space to their partner so that they can have their personal life too. One should have full right to make their decision.

To understand partner’s wishes, fears, dreams and desires:

One should be very sensitive and responsiveness towards the partner’s needs or desire. Understanding what your partner want, dreams or wishes helps to make a relationship healthy and good. It is very important to understand your partner to make a relationship successful.

To meet partner’s need: It is always important to know what your partner needs.

It seems to easier to say but sometimes it is very difficult to give your partner what they need. You might have to sacri
ice many things to meet your partner’s need. At such situation one should act very sensitively and think about their happiness and feel satisfied rather than feeling for your sacrificed things. This will also help much to make relationship.

Always be there whenever your partner needs you:

Always and always be there for your partner whenever your partner need you. Sometimes may be you are the only one on whom they can rely. Always support your partner whenever they need you.

Support your partner’s ambitions and goals:

To support your partner’s goals and ambitions will help them to get motivated towards their work and they can achieve their goals. Always hold your partner’s hand and make them motivated towards their work. By doing so it will help your partner getting motivate and also increase respect for you in their heart.

Keep life full of passionate and excited:

Most of the relationships are exciting and passionate only at starting point and then slowly the passion towards each other decrease as the time passes. But one should make their life passionate and excited to keep their love young. One should keep traveling, share interest and spent some quality time together alone to make relationship strong and passionate.

Never let down your partner during tough time:

Most of the relationship fails when they face tough time or face some misunderstanding between them. Always hold each others hand or your partner’s hand during the tough time and show them you will not let your partner’s hand. If you face any problem face it together and this will make the bond you share stronger day by day.

Treat your partner with love and kindness:

The more you will be loveable and kind towards your partner the more you will win their trust and love. Make your relationship more strong by contributing love and care. The one of the key to success of relationship is to treat your partner with love and kindness.

Show that how luck you are to have your partner:

Last but not the least always try to make your partner feel that how much lucky and happy you are to have the person as your partner. When your partner will feel appreciated they will be happier and committed towards the relation.These things are there which are to be considered if anyone wants to have good relationship with the one they love. Love is an intimate feeling in which two souls in a single heart and bests due to one anothers’ happiness.Loving is a one thing and being responsible towards it is the next level . We often forget these small things and create a mishap around two individuals with common feeling of divine energy called “Love”.



Best Collages for Robotics.

University of California, Berkeley


The University of California is a public research university in Berkeley which was established in 1868. It has a wide range of 350 different programs for both graduates and under grads. In 2013/14, it was ranked 8th amongst the top 10 universities all around the world. The Robotics and machinery Lab at this college is dedicated to perfect the movement of its Robots by studying the movement of animals and humans. It also has a Laboratory for Automatic Science department, where they deal with the overall pre and post phrases of a robot engineering. The college has a huge reputation in the field of robotics.

Johns Hopkins University


This university was founded in 1876 and is located at Baltimore, Maryland, USA. This was one of the earliest universities in the western part of America, and is ranked at the top of the National Science Foundation in science, robotics and medical studies. There have been 36 different personnel associated with this college, who have received the Nobel Prize as well. The Laboratory for Computer Sensing and Robots, which a non- profit division of the university had done several ground breaking researches when it comes to making robots. This department is fully responsibly from designing a robot to programming its functionality, physicality and maintenance.

Colorado School Of Mines


Being one of the small research university, Mines has created a major technological impact since it was established in 1859. As this school was initially occupied miners in that region, the first thing that was started here was the engineering and production of mining equipment. Eventually, the machines and the humans to operate those machines were replaced using robots. The school has a different department named Centre for Automation, Robotics and Distributed Intelligence. This department is fully responsible for all the robotics actions going inside the university.

Stanford University

Stanford UniversityOfficially recognized as Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford is a private university which specializes in research field. It was founded by a former governor Leland Stanford and his wife, in the commemoration of their late son in 1885, but began its services from the October of 1889. The Stanford’s Artificial Intelligence Lab is the main department related to technology, robotics and AI. Since it was established in 1962, it has been looking after all the robotics actions and has also come up with a number of major creations. It is one of the best rated robotics college in the country.

University of Southern California

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIAThe University of Southern California was established in 1880 and is a private institution and also a research university. It is located in the city of Los Angeles and is one of the oldest Universities in all of California. It has served as a base ground for many old time scholars and is also committed to establish links between religion and culture throughout Asia. It was nominated for the top 10 Dream Colleges in the USA.  The Robotics Research Lab here, is the major place for all those new ideas that come up to make a robot.  There are teams of professionals here that discuss the making of a robot from its earliest designs to its functionality, nature and time.

Columbia University

Columbia University

Columbia University

The Columbia University was established in 1754 in New York City. It is located in Upper Manhattan and serves around 30 thousand students, both undergrads and post grads. The college doesn’t have any kind of program for the graduates. The college has a history of having students who in their life time have done and achieved something big in their respective fields. One of such strong field in this college is the robotics wing. Columbia University’s Robotics Group has been an immense governing body in this sector and has helped and inspired many students to create and implement many devices successfully. One of the impressive creations build here was a 3D simulation tool that teaches the robots to interact with the world they are around.

Washington University in St. Louis

download (3)The Washington University is a private research university which was founded in 1853 in St. Louis, Missouri. Named after George Washington, this university has around 15 thousand students, many foreigners from more than a 150 nations. The university however provides only a limited subjects to the graduate and undergrad students who study here. Often referred to as the “Harvard of the West”, the college is famous for its robotics degree. This program includes providing necessary tools and ideas to students, develop ideas and create new machines on a regular basis. The graduation program includes development of essential components such as sensors and actuators, which make it easier for the robots to behave in the real world.

Georgia Institute of Technology

Georgia Institute of TechnologyAlso known as Georgia Tech, this public research university was established in Atlanta, Georgia in 1885. A reputed education institute, it has its associate colleges in France, Savannah, Ireland, China and other places too. Established with the aim of providing a Mechanical engineering degree, its services grew into Civil, Electrical and Chemical engineering. The university is famous for its mechanical engineering and robotics studies. The Institute for Robotics and Intelligent Machines is a leading department i=of the college or robotic development. Not only creating a robot physically, this department also deals with the AI for the movement and characteristics of the robot.

Carnegie Mellon University

Carnegie Mellon UniversityThis is a private university which was established in 1900 and founded by a Andrew Carnegie, after whom it is named as well. 12 years down the road, it had started to serve its students in various field of medical studies, engineering and robotics, computer science and space technologies etc. In the mid-60s, this university collaborated with Mellon Institute and became Carnegie Mellon University. One of its 7 independent colleges include the Carnegie Mellon Robotics Institute which is rather small with only around 80 working members at present. There are 132 students involved in the Master’s program and 94 of them are in PH. D level.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyAlso known as MIT, it is one of the major education sector when it comes to technological stuff.  It is a private research university which was founded in 1861 in Cambridge, and offers wide range of subjects for both the undergrads and graduates as well. It is also famous for its development of sensor chips, which is installed in robots these days. The Computer and Artificial Intelligence Lab at MIT has made a number of progress in development and proper functioning of different types and generations of robots.


List of MOOC

MOOC is short form of Massive Open Online Course which has been focused on online course with unlimited participation around the globe and it is available and open all the time through web. It was first made available at 2012. As, these MOOCs are the recent development in distance education which are doing great these days. MOOC provide you with additional features like interactive user forums which help to build a community for Professors, students and Teacher Assistants (TAs) for sharing the knowledge online.MOOC These days MOOCs uses closed licenses for their course materials while maintaining free access for students whereas in earlier days they often emphasized on open access features like structure and learning goals, connectivism and open licensing of content, to promote the reuse and remixing of resources. This Course has changed the face of education as this has allowed obtaining a level of education which those students can only dream of in the past. Here, I am with the list of MOOCs :

  1. Coursera: Coursera provides free education whoever are interested to study online for free. As, this provides the huge education platform which provides education by coping up with the top Universities and organizations worldwide. Coursera’s aim is to empower people with education which will help them to improve their lives, the lives of their families, and the communities they live in. Coursera helps in providing an access to world-class education for everyone. You can choose among 400+ courses created by the world’s top educational institution. As well as after completion of your course you can receive recognition for your accomplishment.
  2. Edx offers interactive online classes and MOOCs with the help of best universities of the world such as MITx, HarvardX, BerkeleyX, UTx and other universities. EdX is committed to research which allow them to understand how students learn, how technology can transform learning, and the way teachers teach on campus and beyond. They approach to present the best of higher education online, offering opportunity to anyone, who wants to achieve, thrive and grow. The edX platform is available as open source. EdX is based in Cambridge, Massachusetts and is governed by MIT and Harvard.
  3. FutureLearn: FutureLearn provides free online courses which are designed to fit around the life of the students, with short activities and clear goals to encourage them for progress on their comfortable rates. Professional educators from top international universities have created articles, quizzes, videos, to inspire every online student. To make the learning easy and as well as natural as chatting with the group of friends FutureLearner has designed such courses which helps to stimulate debate and provoke questions.
  4. Canvas Network provides an open access to free online courses to multiple people searching out for learning their interested topics. They give teachers, learners, institutions alike the place and platform to define the world of open online learning in a way that makes sense for everyone. When it comes to interaction with new people from different corner of the world feels great and when that is because of learning the things that is even great so canvas network provide an amazing platform to have your entire dream comes true in an imaginative way.
  5. CourseSites: CourseSites is a free, hosted online course provider which hosts online course creation and facilitation service. This empowers individual k-12 teachers, universities instructors, teachers and community educators. CourseSites open education resources and engage students in social learning through interactive environment along with accessing the performance of the students and managing their grades.