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10 important lady of history

From the ancient time the world has been male dominated society. Though in this male dominated society female made their own name. Women have grown stronger than past. They can either make or break anyone’s life. They have the power to rule the world. There have been many ladies who have ruled the world for many years, who are far better than men and who are very important in our history. Some of the important ladies of the history are as follows:

Mother Teresa:

Mother TeresaMother Teresa is one of the most important and well known ladies of in the history. She had spent a lot of her life in India she had Indian citizenship. She was of Roman Catholic. For more than 45 years of her life she had spent in caring poor as well as sick people. For her work she had also won Nobel price.

Madonna:

She is an American actress, singer, song writer as well as an entrepreneur. She is not as much as important ladies in the history but she is well known around the world due to her fame. She is very hard working because of which she has won so much fame. She has never stopped creating new things for which she is known.

Rosa Parks:

She was a civil rights activist. She was called “Mother of the Modern Day Civil Rights Movement” only because of her work. Firstly she had come in highlight because she had refused to give her seat to a white passenger by disobeying the bus driver. Her that acts was the biggest movement against the racial discrimination.

Elizabeth I of England:

Another important lady of the history is Queen Elizabeth. She was very different from other queens of the era. In her whole life she was never married. She is also known as “Virgin Queen”. The period which she had ruled is known as “Elizabeth Era”. She had replaced the Roman Catholic and had established the Protestantism. Because of which she was never married she was last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty.

Florence Nightingale:

Florence Nightingale was the first woman who modernized the nursing. She is also known as “The Lady with the Lamp”. At the time of Crimean War she had served many people of which she became famous. In her birthday the International Nursing Day is celebrated. Because of her belief that the more death is due to lack of poor nutrition, she reduced the death rate by providing them nutritious food.

Tomyris:

Tomyris was the queen Massagetae. She is known for defeating as well as killing the Persian emperor Cyrus and also for wining her country. She had sent a letter by challenging the Cyrus because he had captured her son. In the fight he was killed and the Persians were defeated by great casualties. She had kept Cyrus’s head till her whole life and also drank wine from it until her death.

Cleopatra:

Cleopatra was the last ruler of the Ancient Egypt. She was the woman with beauty and brain. She was one of the members of the Ptolemaic dynasty. She was a great ruler. She had co ruled with her father, Ptolemy XII Auletes and after her father’s death she co ruled with her brothers. After the marriage she became the sole ruler.

Eva Peron:

Eva was the First Lady of Argentina. After her marriage she became most powerful woman within the Pro-Peronist trade unions. She was the most politically powerful woman at her time. She had made homes for poor and homeless people. She had also provided free health care to the whole citizens. Because of her work she soon became very popular and her name appeared everywhere.

Hatshepsut:

She was one of the most powerful and successful female ruler. She had ruled much longer than any other woman has ruled. She had reestablished the trade networks which had been disrupted. She had made a foreign policy mainly focusing about peace and had made a successful military campaign.

Hillary Clinton:

Hillary was the first wife of President Bill Clinton. She is the first lady of the United States. She has contributed a lot in the health sector as well as in political sector. She is the United States Secretary. She had made history by running President herself.

Drugs, Education, Health, Life style, New technology, Remedies,

10 historical most powerful women of all time

Women, she is the most beautiful creature created by nature. They are not so weak as they seem to be. Women are much powerful and strong than they seem to be. They can do anything what they want to do. There are a lot of women who had contributed to develop the world. Here are some of them.

1.Hatshepsut

Hatshepsut(Born: 1508 BC – died: 1458 BC): In the ancient time Hatshepsut was one of the most powerful woman. In the Egyptian history Hatshepsut had ruled longer than any other woman. She was the fifth ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. Later on after the death of her father she began rule with her husband. She was one of the most successful queens of the Ancient Egypt. She had married to her half-brother Thutmose II.

2.Eleanor of Aquitaine

Eleanor-of-Aquitaine(Born: 1122 –  died: 1204):  During the High Middle Age in Europe Eleanor was one of the most powerful and wealthiest women. After the death of her father ultimately she became the ruler. At that time also her family was very well educated. During the 12th Aquitaine were the wealthiest and the largest province of France.

 

3.Empress Theodora

Empress-Theodora(born: 500 AD – died: 548 AD) : At the time of Middle Ages Empress was one of the most powerful and influential women. She had married to Justinian I. She took power only after the death of her husband. She had participated in promoting women’s right in Constantinople, one of the world’s largest cities. She had also provided right to women for property ownership divorce. Because of cancer she died in 548 AD.

 

 

 

 

4.Isabella I of Castile

Isabella-I-of-Castile(Born: 1451 – died: 1504): In Spanish history Isabella was considered one of the most powerful yet controversial queens. Until her husband’s death she co-ruled with her husband. Isabella had contributed a lot in making Spain a world power by sponsoring Christopher Columbus’s voyages to the Western hemisphere.

 

 

 

 

5.Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth-I-of-England(Born: 1533; died: 1603): Elizabeth was the queen who was very different from other queens who had ruled over the time. She was never married. She is also known as “Virgin Queen”. She had replaced Roman Catholic and established Protestantism. As she had never married so she was the last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty. Her the period is known as “Elizabeth Era”.

 

 

 

 

6.Catherine II of Russia

Catherine-II-of-Russia(Born: 1729; died: 1796): She was the queen of the world’s largest country, Russia. She is also known as Catherine the Great. She was married to Peter III. In 1767 she had reformed the system by designing a legislative commission. She is known well expanding the Russian empire. She had also contributed in art, politics and had also made a successful foreign policy. Her rule ended with her death.

 

 

 

 

7.Queen Victoria

(Born: 1819; died: 1901): The history is Queen Victoria. She was not only the queen but also was a head of the vast colonial British Empire. She had ruled over six continents and countries like India, South Africa, Sudan, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada etc. She had contributed massively contributed in social reforms and in politics in the British Empire as well as in United Kingdom.

8.Cixi

Cixi(Born: 1835; died: 1908): Cixi was the ruler of China. She had controlled China very effectively for 47 years. In her time she was the most powerful women in the world. She was also the last ruler of her dynasty. After three years of her death republic was initiated in 1st January 1912.

 

 

 

 

 

9.Ginni Rometty

(Born: 1957; present) : The present one of the most powerful woman is Ginni. She an American business woman. She is CEO, Chairman and President of IBM. She is the most powerful business women since a decade. She has married to a principal investor of Bam Oil Company, Mark Anthony Rometty.

10. Susan Wojcicki

(Born; 1968; present): Susan is an American businesswoman. She is the CEO of YouTube. She is called the most important person in advertising. She is also the most important googler. In 2011 she was named in the “List of the World’s 100 Most Powerful Women” by Forbes Magazine.

Drugs, Education, Health, Life style, New technology, Remedies,

Future of electronic vehicles

electronic vehiclesAn electric vehicle is a type of vehicle which uses electric motors for power. The power can be supplied to the electric vehicles through self-contained battery or generator which will convert fuel to electricity or through a collector system. An electric vehicle consists of electric aircraft, rail and road vehicles, underwater and surface vessels and electrically powered space vehicles.

History
After when Slovak-Hungarian priest Anyos Jedlik made the first viable motor with commutator, rotor and stator in 1827 tit was then when the electric motive power started. In the University of Groningen again in 1835 built a small scale electric car. In between approximately 1832 to 1839 Robert Anderson invented the first simple electric carriage which was powered by a non-rechargeable primary cell. In the US, 28% of the cars were electric cars on the road by the time of 1900. After that in the 20th century electric rail and cars transport had become the majority in the market.
Electronic vehicles are different than the fossil fuel powered vehicles. The electricity which is consumed by the EVs were generated by a wide range of sources like nuclear power and fossils fuels also by renewable sources like solar power, and the wind power, by tidal power and so on. Because of the advantages of the EVs it has attracted the interest of the market rather than the petroleum based transportation infrastructure.

Electricity sources
There are many ways to provide electricity of varying ecological desirability, efficiency and cost.
The direct connection to generation plants is common among electric trains, trolley bus and in some trolley trucks. EVs collects power from the electric power strips which buried under the road surface through electromagnetic induction.
The on-board electricity is generated for vehicles by using diesel engine, fuel cell, nuclear energy and renewable sources like solar power for diesel-electric locomotive, fuel cell vehicle, aircraft carriers and solar vehicles respectively.
Types
Though it is possible to make any kind of vehicle with the help of an electric power train but there are mainly four types of the electric vehicles.
? Ground vehicles: It is also sub categorized into following types.
Plug-in electric vehicle: Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is a type of motor vehicle which can be recharged by any external source of electricity like wall sockets. The produced electricity is stored in a rechargeable battery packs drives.
Hybrid EVS: It is the combination of a conventional power train with some form of electric propulsion.
On and off road EVs: These are the vehicles which are used in the road transportation. They include electric trucks, electric motorcycles, electric buses, trolleybuses, Off-road vehicles etc.
Railborne EVs: The electric trains do not need to carry heavy internal batteries. They use a good power to weight ratios and its proven to be very helpful. This allows giving the high speed to the trains.
Space rover vehicles: Various unmanned or manned vehicles are used to explore the Moon or other planets of the solar system.
? Airborne EVs: From the era of aviation the aircraft having electric power has received a great deal of experimentation. The currently flying electric aircraft includes aerial vehicles which has two kinds: manned and unmanned.
? Seaborne EVs: During the 20th century electric boats were very popular. The Submarines uses nuclear power or they use the fuel cells to run it.
? Electrically powered spacecraft: Solar panels, the new invention i.e the nuclear panels and batteries are the power sources for these space crafts.

 

Advantages and disadvantages of EVs
Electric vehicles has a number of advantages of the. It helps in protecting the environment. They also produce comparatively very less noise pollutions. By the use of EVs we can save a lot of energy. The use of renewable sources is cheap to use. It has a significant benefit to the environment by the use the renewable sources. In Nepal there are a special kind of electric vehicle named SAFA TEMPO which helps to produce lower pollution. These vehicles are powered by using batteries rather than using gas or oil which is very economical as well. It is also very smooth to use. As the produced electricity remains within the country or region where it is produced the EVs gives high degree of energy resilience. Electric vehicles have three times higher energy efficiency compared to the internal combustion engine vehicles.
Hence it has a lot of advantages compared to the internal combustion vehicles it has a great future ahead. It is also Eco friendly and also uses energy which can be renewable and do not scare at all. It helps to make people’s life easier and more comfortable and also it’s a sheer green movement which can prove to be good for the environment too. This concept must give more emphasis for this generation and coming generations if human survival a key question.

Drugs, Education, Health, Life style, New technology, Remedies,

Electronic Cigarette

Electronic CigaretteAn electronic cigarette is a battery powered vaporizer. It feels similar to tobacco smoking. Unlike cigarette smoke electronic cigarettes produce an aerosol which is known as vapor. Generally e-cigarette has a heating element which atomizes a liquid solution which is called e-liquid. An electronic liquid is a mixture of glycerin, nicotine, propylene glycol and flavoring. An electronic cigarette is much safer than tobacco cigarette in terms of tobacco use minimization. The main reason behind using an electronic cigarette is to quit smoking cigarettes and to cut down their smoking habit.

Due to limited evidence the risk and benefit of an electronic cigarette are uncertain. As an electronic cigarette contains less toxic substances than traditional cigarettes, it is safer than traditional cigarettes. The serious effect of an electronic cigarette is mouth inflammation, throat inflammation, cough, nausea and vomiting.

History
The earliest electronic cigarette was made by Herbert A. Gilbert which he named it as smokeless non-tobacco cigarette. It contained moist paper and flavored air heated nicotine solution for cigarette like taste but it was never commercialized. After that a Chinese pharmacist named Hon Lik invented the electronic cigarette. Later on in 2003 he made a cigarette using piezoelectric ultrasound emitting element which used to vaporize the pressurized jet of liquid which contained nicotine diluted in propylene glycol solution. The cigarette made used to produce smoke like vapor which can be inhaled. It provided a vehicle for nicotine delivery into bloodstream through lungs. After that various design of the electronic cigarettes were introduced and were commercialized.
As time passes many electronic cigarettes were continued to evolve from first generation to third generation. In 2006 “cartomizer’ , a mechanism which is used to integrate the heating coil into liquid chamber was invented by British entrepreneurs named Umer and Tariq Sheikh. Later on in 2007 a new device named “cigalike” was launched in the UK in Gamucci brand, which is now adopted by majority. Now the international tobacco company have recognized the potential of new market and are actively involving in the production and marketing of the electronic cigarette.
Preparation
Generally electronic cigarettes are of cylindrical shape with wide array. There are three types of electronic cigarettes namely; cigalikes, which looks similar to cigarettes, eGos, which is bigger than cigalikes and mods, which is assembled from basic parts of existing product.

Generations
An electronic cigarette has four generations i.e first generation, second generation, third generation and fourth generation (future).

First generation: The first generation of e-cigarettes is called “cigalikes” because it looks like tobacco cigarettes. This generation e-cigarette can be designed as a single unit which contains coil, battery and filling saturated with an electronic juice in a single tube. And can be disposed after the battery is charge less or the liquid has depleted.

Second generation: The second generation e-cigarettes are larger than first generation e-cigarettes. It looked less like tobacco cigarettes. They contained larger non removable batteries which can be charged with a USB charger.

Third generation: Third generation of this E-cig includes 2 modes viz mechanical and variable voltage device in the battery section of the box. They are generally made up of wood, aluminum, steel or brass. Hardware can be modified to increase flavor according to the user needs. The fourth generation is coming to the market very soon and is going to be in the digital format.

People, :
People nowadays are addicted to the bad habits very easily and thus cigarettes addiction is not new too . So, for a solution of this serious problem E-cigs were made and this has helped people cope up with the demand of having cigarettes and plus it does not affect the held in that adverse way as compared to the E-cigs. E-cigs though contain nicotine and are highly addictive and thus it can help for stopping the habit but not completely remove since it provides nicotine in adequate dosages. It is not recommended for heart patients and might harm the arteries as per the survey.
E-cigarettes are although safer than the cigarettes but its not that these don’t harm. As said by Drummoned “E-Cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes not unharmful”. Much information about this has not been known and we are studying about its long term effects and exposure in the society.

Drugs, Education, Health, Life style, New technology, Remedies,

10 Sciences behind making making best relationship?

“Love” it is the most beautiful and pure feelings in the world. It is the most intense feeling known to the human beings. It is the power which can motivate a person to get success in life. Love can change a bad person to good. But many relationship fails due to misunderstanding between couples. Sometimes they fail to understand each others feelings and unfortunately the misunderstanding takeover. Many people think it’s easy to make a good relationship but truth is that it takes lots of effort and maturity to handle a relationship and make it good for long time.

best relationshipHere are some of the science behind making best relationship:

Respect and admire your partner:

Everybody has some flaws but love is what to accept a person with their flaws and be happy. A research has shown that positive attitude towards your partner will be helpful to make a good and a very romantic relationship. Not only it helps to make good relationship, it also helps you to feel better about yourself and it will help to lead relationship towards happiness and success.

Protect and support the freedom:

When someone is in relationship more responsibility comes compared to single ones. One should learn to respect others feelings and should not hold them very tightly literally. One should give some space to their partner so that they can have their personal life too. One should have full right to make their decision.

To understand partner’s wishes, fears, dreams and desires:

One should be very sensitive and responsiveness towards the partner’s needs or desire. Understanding what your partner want, dreams or wishes helps to make a relationship healthy and good. It is very important to understand your partner to make a relationship successful.

To meet partner’s need: It is always important to know what your partner needs.

It seems to easier to say but sometimes it is very difficult to give your partner what they need. You might have to sacri
ice many things to meet your partner’s need. At such situation one should act very sensitively and think about their happiness and feel satisfied rather than feeling for your sacrificed things. This will also help much to make relationship.

Always be there whenever your partner needs you:

Always and always be there for your partner whenever your partner need you. Sometimes may be you are the only one on whom they can rely. Always support your partner whenever they need you.

Support your partner’s ambitions and goals:

To support your partner’s goals and ambitions will help them to get motivated towards their work and they can achieve their goals. Always hold your partner’s hand and make them motivated towards their work. By doing so it will help your partner getting motivate and also increase respect for you in their heart.

Keep life full of passionate and excited:

Most of the relationships are exciting and passionate only at starting point and then slowly the passion towards each other decrease as the time passes. But one should make their life passionate and excited to keep their love young. One should keep traveling, share interest and spent some quality time together alone to make relationship strong and passionate.

Never let down your partner during tough time:

Most of the relationship fails when they face tough time or face some misunderstanding between them. Always hold each others hand or your partner’s hand during the tough time and show them you will not let your partner’s hand. If you face any problem face it together and this will make the bond you share stronger day by day.

Treat your partner with love and kindness:

The more you will be loveable and kind towards your partner the more you will win their trust and love. Make your relationship more strong by contributing love and care. The one of the key to success of relationship is to treat your partner with love and kindness.

Show that how luck you are to have your partner:

Last but not the least always try to make your partner feel that how much lucky and happy you are to have the person as your partner. When your partner will feel appreciated they will be happier and committed towards the relation.These things are there which are to be considered if anyone wants to have good relationship with the one they love. Love is an intimate feeling in which two souls in a single heart and bests due to one anothers’ happiness.Loving is a one thing and being responsible towards it is the next level . We often forget these small things and create a mishap around two individuals with common feeling of divine energy called “Love”.

 

Drugs, Health,

Is hookah smoking safer than cigarette smoking?

Hookah-smoking

Hookah is a smoking device which was origin from our past in the fifteenth century. It has been used in Middle East India but now recently it has been popular in western culture countries (Americas and Europe).

It has been reported that like other terms smoking tobacco leads to addiction. We are well known about these things but we do not care about it. So it has been the growing problem of the world.

Some of the diseases like lungs cancer, different infectious diseases are being our day to day problem. The world health org has reported that among another disease in pregnant women the use of addiction causes fetal growth and different diseases in the newborn babies.

It was also mentioned that hookah smoking contains several toxic substances that can affect both the primary and passive smokers, so we did this to determine the complication associated with its use. Further, we must be aware of this thing and make our health fit and fine.

It is harmful to smoke hookah than cigarettes in comparison but both of them harms to our lungs. We can only say that hookah harms more than cigarettes. Hookah is named as water pipes or hobble bobble.

It is harmful to smoke hookah than the cigarettes because one time in the healing of hookah is hundred times of cigarettes. It has tobacco and charcoal on the top that burns the tobacco which sucks the smoke through the water into the tube than to the user’s lungs. Due to careless on of safety study of 2007 American teen found those who smoke the water pipes is eight times more than the cigarette. If we focus on our new generation the youth are being the mass victim of all over the world. The report of American lungs association approves that 16% of higher scholar’s and 25 to 40% of colleges are in addiction. In comparison 26% of schools smoke hookah.

Hookah Smoking Compared With Cigarette Smoking

  • While several hookah smokers may think this practice is less harmful than smoking cigarettes, hookah smoking has many of the same health risks as cigarette smoking.
  • Water pipe smoking delivers nicotine to the same highly addictive drug found in other tobacco products.
  • The tobacco in hookahs is burned and the smoke is at least as toxic as cigarette smoke.
  • The amount of smoke inhaled during hookah session is about 90,000 milliliters, compared with 500–600 ml inhaled when smoking a cigarette.
  • Hookah smokers may be at risk for some of the same diseases as cigarette smokers. These include a bad feature in life so say no drugs.

People believe the water in the hookah filters the tobacco. Hookah smokers fill smoother because the temperature is lower and has high humidity. As any other tobacco products hookah is more harmful. The University of Mare Land says hookah contains a higher label of carbon dioxide. Smoking its self is bad and even worse. The study of cancer association when testing the urine of both they found a chemical that damages the red blood cells, nervous system, eye, throat, and nose. Some label in hookah smoker is more than the cigarette smoker.

The world heath org found the average section last between 20 to 80 minutes. When you inhale 50 to 100 milliliters of smoking cigarettes. Puffing on hookah for a section its 90 thousand milliliters. That’s for the hundred invisible of cigarettes. So for hookah is a proof low birth rate.

hookas

Use

  • Hookah use began in ancient Persia and India.
  • Today, hookah cafes are gaining in popularity around the world, including Britain, France, Russia, the Middle East, and the United States.
  • Hookah use by youth and college students is increasing.
  • Other small studies of young adults have found high prevalence of hookah use among college students in the United States. These studies show past-year use ranging from 22% to 40%.

 

Drugs, Health,

Why Marijuana is Illegal ?

Why legalization of Marijuana always debatable !!

In spite of, having number of beneficial use in the field of medicine of Marijuana because of the misuse it has been considered Illegal. In medical field, these days number of researches is being conducted. In New England Journal of Medicine last March, a survey has found 76% of doctors accepted in favor of the use of medical marijuana with the presented case of breast cancer. Marijuana helps in increasing appetite, relieve the symptoms of glaucoma, etc are few health beneficial part of marijuana. But there such countries where Marijuana is still considered Illegal. Why is Marijuana Illegal?

As the debate is going on for long in the topic “whether to legalize marijuana or not?”

Many arguments were made for the above topic. As Marijuana have both positive and negative sides according to the use. Marijuana has lots of pros and cons within its effects n causes through its use. The most realistic arguments of those who go up against the legalization of marijuana is "Would you want your children to smoke marijuana?" of course for which the answer will always be negative. Also See : Marijuana vs Cigarettes, which is more dangerous . Anti-legalization of marijuana can also be the better decision as it is addictive and is also health hazard. Use of Marijuana leads to cancer, heart attack, respiratory problems, and damages to immune system also it may cause some other health problems like distorted perception, memory loss, loss of motor skill, etc which are generally considered as the short term hazards. Marijuana is not only harmful to the users but also harms the people around them. It affects the ability of user’s in terms of concentration, of being alert, co-ordination will be difficult and the way to react which will lead them to crime or driving accidents. Accidents may occur because of difficulty in reading signs, judge distance, react to signals, etc. Above, I have just mentioned few problems due to consumption of Marijuana which is considered as illegal in most of the countries but the same problems are also linked with alcohols and tobacco smoking at the time which is of course legal in almost all countries. Whereas some critics have mentioned that alcohol and tobacco are not as dangerous as marijuana because those will not lead to deadlier drugs later in life of person but marijuana will surely leads to. Few drug users concluded that marijuana leads to the use of more dangerous and harder drugs such as cocaine and heroin, according to the Critics cite studies. Also few critics mentioned that with legalization of Marijuana, it may flourish the absolutely negative culture that allows the use of drugs with legal power. The legality of marijuana and its use is variable in different countries around the world, also in majority of countries it is illegal and as well as in some it is considered as legal. However, in many countries like North America, Europe, South America the possession of small quantity of marijuana is decriminalized, which has been done for medical purpose. Here are some list covers the name of countries where “Marijuana” is legal is:

  1. United States: Illegal at federal level but it is legal at state level in states such as Washington and Colorado.
  2. Switzerland: Illegal but decriminalized.
  3. Spain: Illegal but decriminalized.
  4. Uruguay: Legal for personal use.
  5. Mexico: Illegal but decriminalized.
  6. North Korea: The sale, growth and consumption of marijuana are legal and not regulated by the government of North Korea.
  7. Pakistan: Though laws exist inhibiting the sale and misuse of marijuana, the use in community gatherings is tolerated.
  8. Ecuador: Illegal but decriminalized
  9. Czech Republic: Illegal but decriminalized.
  10. France: Illegal but legal for medical use.
  11. India: Though it is illegal to possess marijuana by law but the law is treated with low priority in India. It is also utilized during some Hindu rituals. However, it is legal to sell marijuana in some shops authorized by government.
  12. Iran: Regulated use is legal whereas unregulated use is illegal.
  13. Costa Rica: Illegal but decriminalized.
  14. Columbia: Illegal but decriminalized.
  15. Canada: Illegal but legal for use in medicine and industries after obtaining a governed issued license.
  16. Brazil: Illegal however, mostly tolerated.
  17. Australia: Illegal but decriminalized in some states.
  18. Argentina: Illegal but decriminalized.

However, it has been made legal in many countries over the world still it is not completely acceptable in those countries as well. Likewise, there are many countries where Marijuana is still considered Illegal instead of having health related benefits which are still in the process of researches. Also few countries are in the process of legalization. Since, the debate on the matter is moving on the top today so let’s see what will happen in our near future. As for sure we will be updating on this most debated topic “Whether Marijuana is legal or illegal??”

Drugs, Health,

Paracetamol – uses and its adverse effects

Paracetamol tablets-278796

Paracetamol or acetaminophen is one of the most widely used drugs over the century. It is classified as para-amino phenol derivatives and commonly used as mild analgesic and anti-pyretic drug. The analgesic action of paracetamol is due to suppression of the central nervous system(CNS) rather than the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Though this drug has anti-pyretic and analgesic action, it has no antiinflammatory effect .

The major benefits of using paracetamol are;

  1. It doesn’t stimulate respiratory center.
  2. It doesn’t affect the acid-base balance of body.
  3. It doesn’t increase the cellular metabolism.
  4. It doesn’t cause gastric irritation, so gastric ulcers and bleeding are rare unless its an overdose.
  5. It doesn’t cross the placental barrier. So, can be used in pregnant.
  6. It doesn’t affect the platelet function and the clotting factors
  7. .Hypersensitivity(allergy) is very rare.
  8. It can be used in all age groups.

Uses:

fever

fever

it is a condition when temperature of the body rises above normal 37 degree celsious (98,6 degree fahrenheit).since we already mentioned that paracetamol has an anti-pyretic action. So, it is most commonly used during fever. The WHO reccomends that paracetamol can be used in children if the temperature is above 38,6 degree celsious. It is best drug to use in children during fever because there’s no risk of Reye’s syndrome.

 

Pain

headache

popularly known for its analgesic action without antiinflammatory effect, it is widely used in mild headaches , muscle aches, arthiritis. It can be used in the persons with excess gastric secretion and prolonged bleeding time instead of asprin . It can be used during

  1. Headache.
  2. Mild migraine.
  3. Musculoskeletal pain.
  4. Dysmenorrhoea.
  5. Osteoarthiritis

 

Adverse effects:

  1. nausea and rashes occurs ocassionally.
  2. Lekopenia(decrease in leucocytes count) may occur but rarely.
  3. Analgesic nephropathy.
  4. Acute paracetamol poisoning may occur in small children which may lead to hepatic failure.
  5. Some studies has shown that use of paracetamol during pregnancy may lead to the infertility in the adult life of the unborn.
  6. In some studies , it is found that use of paracetamol may cause respiratory related problems like asthma during 6-7 years of life.
  7. Since paracetamol is metabolized by the liver, it shouldn’t be used in persons with chronic alcoholics , hepatic diseases, and should never be mixed with alcoholic drinks.
  8. Normally , overdose symptoms is seen within few hours after taking paracetamol and it includes symptoms like nausea, vomitting, pain(due to hepatic failure). So , in such cases its better to call an ambulance of health workers as fast as possible.

But we should always remember few things before taking certain drugs.

  1. Always take drugs by doctor’s prescribtion.
  2. Always check whether the drug is expired or not.
  3. And never take more drugs than prescribed because taking more drugs doesn’t heal you fast.