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10 important lady of history

From the ancient time the world has been male dominated society. Though in this male dominated society female made their own name. Women have grown stronger than past. They can either make or break anyone’s life. They have the power to rule the world. There have been many ladies who have ruled the world for many years, who are far better than men and who are very important in our history. Some of the important ladies of the history are as follows:

Mother Teresa:

Mother TeresaMother Teresa is one of the most important and well known ladies of in the history. She had spent a lot of her life in India she had Indian citizenship. She was of Roman Catholic. For more than 45 years of her life she had spent in caring poor as well as sick people. For her work she had also won Nobel price.


She is an American actress, singer, song writer as well as an entrepreneur. She is not as much as important ladies in the history but she is well known around the world due to her fame. She is very hard working because of which she has won so much fame. She has never stopped creating new things for which she is known.

Rosa Parks:

She was a civil rights activist. She was called “Mother of the Modern Day Civil Rights Movement” only because of her work. Firstly she had come in highlight because she had refused to give her seat to a white passenger by disobeying the bus driver. Her that acts was the biggest movement against the racial discrimination.

Elizabeth I of England:

Another important lady of the history is Queen Elizabeth. She was very different from other queens of the era. In her whole life she was never married. She is also known as “Virgin Queen”. The period which she had ruled is known as “Elizabeth Era”. She had replaced the Roman Catholic and had established the Protestantism. Because of which she was never married she was last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty.

Florence Nightingale:

Florence Nightingale was the first woman who modernized the nursing. She is also known as “The Lady with the Lamp”. At the time of Crimean War she had served many people of which she became famous. In her birthday the International Nursing Day is celebrated. Because of her belief that the more death is due to lack of poor nutrition, she reduced the death rate by providing them nutritious food.


Tomyris was the queen Massagetae. She is known for defeating as well as killing the Persian emperor Cyrus and also for wining her country. She had sent a letter by challenging the Cyrus because he had captured her son. In the fight he was killed and the Persians were defeated by great casualties. She had kept Cyrus’s head till her whole life and also drank wine from it until her death.


Cleopatra was the last ruler of the Ancient Egypt. She was the woman with beauty and brain. She was one of the members of the Ptolemaic dynasty. She was a great ruler. She had co ruled with her father, Ptolemy XII Auletes and after her father’s death she co ruled with her brothers. After the marriage she became the sole ruler.

Eva Peron:

Eva was the First Lady of Argentina. After her marriage she became most powerful woman within the Pro-Peronist trade unions. She was the most politically powerful woman at her time. She had made homes for poor and homeless people. She had also provided free health care to the whole citizens. Because of her work she soon became very popular and her name appeared everywhere.


She was one of the most powerful and successful female ruler. She had ruled much longer than any other woman has ruled. She had reestablished the trade networks which had been disrupted. She had made a foreign policy mainly focusing about peace and had made a successful military campaign.

Hillary Clinton:

Hillary was the first wife of President Bill Clinton. She is the first lady of the United States. She has contributed a lot in the health sector as well as in political sector. She is the United States Secretary. She had made history by running President herself.

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10 historical most powerful women of all time

Women, she is the most beautiful creature created by nature. They are not so weak as they seem to be. Women are much powerful and strong than they seem to be. They can do anything what they want to do. There are a lot of women who had contributed to develop the world. Here are some of them.


Hatshepsut(Born: 1508 BC – died: 1458 BC): In the ancient time Hatshepsut was one of the most powerful woman. In the Egyptian history Hatshepsut had ruled longer than any other woman. She was the fifth ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. Later on after the death of her father she began rule with her husband. She was one of the most successful queens of the Ancient Egypt. She had married to her half-brother Thutmose II.

2.Eleanor of Aquitaine

Eleanor-of-Aquitaine(Born: 1122 –  died: 1204):  During the High Middle Age in Europe Eleanor was one of the most powerful and wealthiest women. After the death of her father ultimately she became the ruler. At that time also her family was very well educated. During the 12th Aquitaine were the wealthiest and the largest province of France.


3.Empress Theodora

Empress-Theodora(born: 500 AD – died: 548 AD) : At the time of Middle Ages Empress was one of the most powerful and influential women. She had married to Justinian I. She took power only after the death of her husband. She had participated in promoting women’s right in Constantinople, one of the world’s largest cities. She had also provided right to women for property ownership divorce. Because of cancer she died in 548 AD.





4.Isabella I of Castile

Isabella-I-of-Castile(Born: 1451 – died: 1504): In Spanish history Isabella was considered one of the most powerful yet controversial queens. Until her husband’s death she co-ruled with her husband. Isabella had contributed a lot in making Spain a world power by sponsoring Christopher Columbus’s voyages to the Western hemisphere.





5.Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth-I-of-England(Born: 1533; died: 1603): Elizabeth was the queen who was very different from other queens who had ruled over the time. She was never married. She is also known as “Virgin Queen”. She had replaced Roman Catholic and established Protestantism. As she had never married so she was the last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty. Her the period is known as “Elizabeth Era”.





6.Catherine II of Russia

Catherine-II-of-Russia(Born: 1729; died: 1796): She was the queen of the world’s largest country, Russia. She is also known as Catherine the Great. She was married to Peter III. In 1767 she had reformed the system by designing a legislative commission. She is known well expanding the Russian empire. She had also contributed in art, politics and had also made a successful foreign policy. Her rule ended with her death.





7.Queen Victoria

(Born: 1819; died: 1901): The history is Queen Victoria. She was not only the queen but also was a head of the vast colonial British Empire. She had ruled over six continents and countries like India, South Africa, Sudan, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada etc. She had contributed massively contributed in social reforms and in politics in the British Empire as well as in United Kingdom.


Cixi(Born: 1835; died: 1908): Cixi was the ruler of China. She had controlled China very effectively for 47 years. In her time she was the most powerful women in the world. She was also the last ruler of her dynasty. After three years of her death republic was initiated in 1st January 1912.






9.Ginni Rometty

(Born: 1957; present) : The present one of the most powerful woman is Ginni. She an American business woman. She is CEO, Chairman and President of IBM. She is the most powerful business women since a decade. She has married to a principal investor of Bam Oil Company, Mark Anthony Rometty.

10. Susan Wojcicki

(Born; 1968; present): Susan is an American businesswoman. She is the CEO of YouTube. She is called the most important person in advertising. She is also the most important googler. In 2011 she was named in the “List of the World’s 100 Most Powerful Women” by Forbes Magazine.

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Future of electronic vehicles

electronic vehiclesAn electric vehicle is a type of vehicle which uses electric motors for power. The power can be supplied to the electric vehicles through self-contained battery or generator which will convert fuel to electricity or through a collector system. An electric vehicle consists of electric aircraft, rail and road vehicles, underwater and surface vessels and electrically powered space vehicles.

After when Slovak-Hungarian priest Anyos Jedlik made the first viable motor with commutator, rotor and stator in 1827 tit was then when the electric motive power started. In the University of Groningen again in 1835 built a small scale electric car. In between approximately 1832 to 1839 Robert Anderson invented the first simple electric carriage which was powered by a non-rechargeable primary cell. In the US, 28% of the cars were electric cars on the road by the time of 1900. After that in the 20th century electric rail and cars transport had become the majority in the market.
Electronic vehicles are different than the fossil fuel powered vehicles. The electricity which is consumed by the EVs were generated by a wide range of sources like nuclear power and fossils fuels also by renewable sources like solar power, and the wind power, by tidal power and so on. Because of the advantages of the EVs it has attracted the interest of the market rather than the petroleum based transportation infrastructure.

Electricity sources
There are many ways to provide electricity of varying ecological desirability, efficiency and cost.
The direct connection to generation plants is common among electric trains, trolley bus and in some trolley trucks. EVs collects power from the electric power strips which buried under the road surface through electromagnetic induction.
The on-board electricity is generated for vehicles by using diesel engine, fuel cell, nuclear energy and renewable sources like solar power for diesel-electric locomotive, fuel cell vehicle, aircraft carriers and solar vehicles respectively.
Though it is possible to make any kind of vehicle with the help of an electric power train but there are mainly four types of the electric vehicles.
? Ground vehicles: It is also sub categorized into following types.
Plug-in electric vehicle: Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is a type of motor vehicle which can be recharged by any external source of electricity like wall sockets. The produced electricity is stored in a rechargeable battery packs drives.
Hybrid EVS: It is the combination of a conventional power train with some form of electric propulsion.
On and off road EVs: These are the vehicles which are used in the road transportation. They include electric trucks, electric motorcycles, electric buses, trolleybuses, Off-road vehicles etc.
Railborne EVs: The electric trains do not need to carry heavy internal batteries. They use a good power to weight ratios and its proven to be very helpful. This allows giving the high speed to the trains.
Space rover vehicles: Various unmanned or manned vehicles are used to explore the Moon or other planets of the solar system.
? Airborne EVs: From the era of aviation the aircraft having electric power has received a great deal of experimentation. The currently flying electric aircraft includes aerial vehicles which has two kinds: manned and unmanned.
? Seaborne EVs: During the 20th century electric boats were very popular. The Submarines uses nuclear power or they use the fuel cells to run it.
? Electrically powered spacecraft: Solar panels, the new invention i.e the nuclear panels and batteries are the power sources for these space crafts.


Advantages and disadvantages of EVs
Electric vehicles has a number of advantages of the. It helps in protecting the environment. They also produce comparatively very less noise pollutions. By the use of EVs we can save a lot of energy. The use of renewable sources is cheap to use. It has a significant benefit to the environment by the use the renewable sources. In Nepal there are a special kind of electric vehicle named SAFA TEMPO which helps to produce lower pollution. These vehicles are powered by using batteries rather than using gas or oil which is very economical as well. It is also very smooth to use. As the produced electricity remains within the country or region where it is produced the EVs gives high degree of energy resilience. Electric vehicles have three times higher energy efficiency compared to the internal combustion engine vehicles.
Hence it has a lot of advantages compared to the internal combustion vehicles it has a great future ahead. It is also Eco friendly and also uses energy which can be renewable and do not scare at all. It helps to make people’s life easier and more comfortable and also it’s a sheer green movement which can prove to be good for the environment too. This concept must give more emphasis for this generation and coming generations if human survival a key question.

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Electronic Cigarette

Electronic CigaretteAn electronic cigarette is a battery powered vaporizer. It feels similar to tobacco smoking. Unlike cigarette smoke electronic cigarettes produce an aerosol which is known as vapor. Generally e-cigarette has a heating element which atomizes a liquid solution which is called e-liquid. An electronic liquid is a mixture of glycerin, nicotine, propylene glycol and flavoring. An electronic cigarette is much safer than tobacco cigarette in terms of tobacco use minimization. The main reason behind using an electronic cigarette is to quit smoking cigarettes and to cut down their smoking habit.

Due to limited evidence the risk and benefit of an electronic cigarette are uncertain. As an electronic cigarette contains less toxic substances than traditional cigarettes, it is safer than traditional cigarettes. The serious effect of an electronic cigarette is mouth inflammation, throat inflammation, cough, nausea and vomiting.

The earliest electronic cigarette was made by Herbert A. Gilbert which he named it as smokeless non-tobacco cigarette. It contained moist paper and flavored air heated nicotine solution for cigarette like taste but it was never commercialized. After that a Chinese pharmacist named Hon Lik invented the electronic cigarette. Later on in 2003 he made a cigarette using piezoelectric ultrasound emitting element which used to vaporize the pressurized jet of liquid which contained nicotine diluted in propylene glycol solution. The cigarette made used to produce smoke like vapor which can be inhaled. It provided a vehicle for nicotine delivery into bloodstream through lungs. After that various design of the electronic cigarettes were introduced and were commercialized.
As time passes many electronic cigarettes were continued to evolve from first generation to third generation. In 2006 “cartomizer’ , a mechanism which is used to integrate the heating coil into liquid chamber was invented by British entrepreneurs named Umer and Tariq Sheikh. Later on in 2007 a new device named “cigalike” was launched in the UK in Gamucci brand, which is now adopted by majority. Now the international tobacco company have recognized the potential of new market and are actively involving in the production and marketing of the electronic cigarette.
Generally electronic cigarettes are of cylindrical shape with wide array. There are three types of electronic cigarettes namely; cigalikes, which looks similar to cigarettes, eGos, which is bigger than cigalikes and mods, which is assembled from basic parts of existing product.

An electronic cigarette has four generations i.e first generation, second generation, third generation and fourth generation (future).

First generation: The first generation of e-cigarettes is called “cigalikes” because it looks like tobacco cigarettes. This generation e-cigarette can be designed as a single unit which contains coil, battery and filling saturated with an electronic juice in a single tube. And can be disposed after the battery is charge less or the liquid has depleted.

Second generation: The second generation e-cigarettes are larger than first generation e-cigarettes. It looked less like tobacco cigarettes. They contained larger non removable batteries which can be charged with a USB charger.

Third generation: Third generation of this E-cig includes 2 modes viz mechanical and variable voltage device in the battery section of the box. They are generally made up of wood, aluminum, steel or brass. Hardware can be modified to increase flavor according to the user needs. The fourth generation is coming to the market very soon and is going to be in the digital format.

People, :
People nowadays are addicted to the bad habits very easily and thus cigarettes addiction is not new too . So, for a solution of this serious problem E-cigs were made and this has helped people cope up with the demand of having cigarettes and plus it does not affect the held in that adverse way as compared to the E-cigs. E-cigs though contain nicotine and are highly addictive and thus it can help for stopping the habit but not completely remove since it provides nicotine in adequate dosages. It is not recommended for heart patients and might harm the arteries as per the survey.
E-cigarettes are although safer than the cigarettes but its not that these don’t harm. As said by Drummoned “E-Cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes not unharmful”. Much information about this has not been known and we are studying about its long term effects and exposure in the society.

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10 Sciences behind making making best relationship?

“Love” it is the most beautiful and pure feelings in the world. It is the most intense feeling known to the human beings. It is the power which can motivate a person to get success in life. Love can change a bad person to good. But many relationship fails due to misunderstanding between couples. Sometimes they fail to understand each others feelings and unfortunately the misunderstanding takeover. Many people think it’s easy to make a good relationship but truth is that it takes lots of effort and maturity to handle a relationship and make it good for long time.

best relationshipHere are some of the science behind making best relationship:

Respect and admire your partner:

Everybody has some flaws but love is what to accept a person with their flaws and be happy. A research has shown that positive attitude towards your partner will be helpful to make a good and a very romantic relationship. Not only it helps to make good relationship, it also helps you to feel better about yourself and it will help to lead relationship towards happiness and success.

Protect and support the freedom:

When someone is in relationship more responsibility comes compared to single ones. One should learn to respect others feelings and should not hold them very tightly literally. One should give some space to their partner so that they can have their personal life too. One should have full right to make their decision.

To understand partner’s wishes, fears, dreams and desires:

One should be very sensitive and responsiveness towards the partner’s needs or desire. Understanding what your partner want, dreams or wishes helps to make a relationship healthy and good. It is very important to understand your partner to make a relationship successful.

To meet partner’s need: It is always important to know what your partner needs.

It seems to easier to say but sometimes it is very difficult to give your partner what they need. You might have to sacri
ice many things to meet your partner’s need. At such situation one should act very sensitively and think about their happiness and feel satisfied rather than feeling for your sacrificed things. This will also help much to make relationship.

Always be there whenever your partner needs you:

Always and always be there for your partner whenever your partner need you. Sometimes may be you are the only one on whom they can rely. Always support your partner whenever they need you.

Support your partner’s ambitions and goals:

To support your partner’s goals and ambitions will help them to get motivated towards their work and they can achieve their goals. Always hold your partner’s hand and make them motivated towards their work. By doing so it will help your partner getting motivate and also increase respect for you in their heart.

Keep life full of passionate and excited:

Most of the relationships are exciting and passionate only at starting point and then slowly the passion towards each other decrease as the time passes. But one should make their life passionate and excited to keep their love young. One should keep traveling, share interest and spent some quality time together alone to make relationship strong and passionate.

Never let down your partner during tough time:

Most of the relationship fails when they face tough time or face some misunderstanding between them. Always hold each others hand or your partner’s hand during the tough time and show them you will not let your partner’s hand. If you face any problem face it together and this will make the bond you share stronger day by day.

Treat your partner with love and kindness:

The more you will be loveable and kind towards your partner the more you will win their trust and love. Make your relationship more strong by contributing love and care. The one of the key to success of relationship is to treat your partner with love and kindness.

Show that how luck you are to have your partner:

Last but not the least always try to make your partner feel that how much lucky and happy you are to have the person as your partner. When your partner will feel appreciated they will be happier and committed towards the relation.These things are there which are to be considered if anyone wants to have good relationship with the one they love. Love is an intimate feeling in which two souls in a single heart and bests due to one anothers’ happiness.Loving is a one thing and being responsible towards it is the next level . We often forget these small things and create a mishap around two individuals with common feeling of divine energy called “Love”.


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what is god particle in simple words ?

God particle

God particle is known as the Higgs boson. The name of Higgs boson is name after the Peter Higgs. He was one of the six physicists who proposed the mechanism suggesting the existence of the particle. It is the subatomic particle of Higgs boson.

god particleAccording to Layman different subatomic particles are responsible for giving different properties. It’s one of the most important and mysterious property is “mass”. The God particle is believed to be the particle that gives “mass” to the matter. The name of Higgs boson as God particle had been derived out of the long struggles of physicists to find the elusive piece of the cosmic puzzle. The presence of the Higgs field is very hard to find. It can only be find through its excitation. According to Standard Model Higgs particle a boson which has no electric charge or color charge and spin which are its two most important properties.The Higgs search has led to the construction of worlds most expensive complexing facilities at CERN “The Large Hadron Collider” which is able to create particles like Higgs and other elementary particles for study and research.

Higgs terms

Symmetries and forces: In the Standard Model of particle physics symmetries is known as the fundamental forces of nature which arise from laws of nature. These are transmitted by particles which are known as gauge bosons. Gauge bosons have quite a recognizable mass and are short ranging due to which their masses creates structures like atoms and stars very possible although there is no theory to prove this evidence.

Higgs mechanism: In early 1960 physicists came to know that a given symmetry law may not be always followed under certain conditions. The Higgs model explains the gauge boson and shows that the symmetry would not be possible if any unusual kind of field suddenly appears in the universe making the boson very much difficult to exist with such low mass.

Higgs Field: Higgs field exists all over the space and sometimes breaks the symmetry laws of electroweak interactions. This fields existence causes or triggers the HIgg’s Mechanism and that makes a bit more clearer approach for their weak force and also explains their very short range.Also the scientists tried to explain why other fundamental elements of matter consists of mass.

Higgs Boson and Modern Physics

We know particle physics explains the components, forces, reactions and studies about the basic particle that build up a matter. Rather than dealing with only atoms and their components it also deals with the pieces which compose the subatomic particles. This model still has some major gaps, experimental contradictions including issues over gravity. The standard model is still the better method of understanding particle physics and also it does continue to improve it. The model also assumes that there are some certain elementary particles which are even much smaller than protons and neutrons. Till the date the model had predicted that “Higgs boson” is the only which has not been experimentally verified.

Properties of the Higgs

The Higgs consists of four components viz two neutral ones and two charged components and are collectively called Goldstone bosons. The higgs boson has no spin since it is a scalar field.It also has its own antiparticle and is said to have zero electric and colour charge.

Its mass cannot be predicted by the Minimal Standard Model that has been proposed. However it is presumed that if the mass is between 115 and 180 GeV/c2, the standard model can be valid at upto Placnk scale energy levels(19 GeV). Some of the physicist also believe that a new TeV scale will have to be found according to some of the unsatisfactory properties of the Standard Model. Although, there has been set a limit of 1.4 TeV which is supposed to be a highest possible mass-scale for The Higgs since after that it becomes quite difficult for the scattering process.

Some Analogies

A number of explanations and summarizations regarding the Higgs and how does the field create a mass, have been made upto now by different related and unrelated people. The High school teachers at CERN and some physicists suggest that it must be like the white light splitting and it is the cause for its breaking and mass causing effect.

Symmetry breaking in particle physics

In some theories, gauge bosons and some other fundamental particles are all supposed to be massless and are symmetrical but due to the Higgs field the symmetry is broken and this results in every scattered particles having diferrent masses , at most be unique for each particle.

Matt Strassler- Electric field analogy

Particles not all reach the Higgs Field and the particles which have mass generally feel the Higgs field which seems to be quite alike in an electric field-charged particles and neutral objects get pulled and sail in the field.

“Real world” impact – Stephen Hawking

The Stephen Hawling in his book Starmus had given some of the hints regarding the Higgs and its effect or impact on Earth as a whole. He gave us an information that the Higgs has a potential of becoming metastable at energy level above 100bn GeV and this could mean that the universe might undergo catastrophic vacuum decay, with a bubble of true vacuum which will be expanding at the speed of light. He also has said that this could happen at anytime and we could never see it coming. He however gave us the details of it and clarified it by saying that the only way to accelerate the particles above 100bn GeV was with a particle accelerator which must be larger than that the size of our planet “The Earth”.

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What is Graphene ?

Graphene is pure carbon that conducts heat and electricity in great efficiency. It is in the form of very thin, nearly transparent, one atom thick which is nearly 100 times stronger than steel and is very low in weight. Graphene is carbon-based flexible capacitive material with its biodegradable feature which one of the today’s necessity. It is made up of Graphite, which we can usually find in no.2 pencil. samsungbendable Technically, graphene is a crystalline allotrope of carbon with two-dimensional. As it is, virtually two-dimensional it interacts oddly with light and other materials. Carbon atoms are densely packed in a regular sp2-bonded atomic-scale chicken wire (hexagonal) pattern. It is basic structural element of other allotropes, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, including graphite. It can also be considered as an indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the limiting case of the family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydro carbons. The two basic approaches to produce graphene are to cleave multi-layer graphite into single layers or to grow it epitaxially by depositing one layer of carbon onto another material. The graphite must then be bonded to some substrate to retain its 2d shape. As well as, other techniques are also developed.

Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material grapheme won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010. Along with this Nobel Prize in physics, they have won several awards for their research on graphene.

Professor Andre Geim, left, and Dr Konstantin Novoselov

 Graphene, is that research which can cause an amazing changes in technological world. It is considered as an emerging material which could change the way of producing electronic materials and help in growth of performance. Till now graphene has not been used in commercial application. But the use of grapheme has been proposed or are in under development, in areas like filtration, lightweight/strong composite materials, photovoltaics, biological engineering and energy storage including electronic areas.  Graphene is produced in the form of powder and as dispersion in a polymer matrix, or adhesive, elastomer, oil and aqueous and non-aqueous solutions. Manufacturers use graphene produced as a dispersion for lubricants, capacitors and batteries, paints and coatings, display materials and packaging, advanced composites, inks and 3D-printer’s material and films. It serve as a touch sensitive coating, which also could be used for boosting up the internet speed and as well as for extending the lives of computers. As it is better conductor of electricity and heat than any other material, this will surely play an important role for many inventions, technologies and for various products in future. 

As we have discussed about the uses of grephene in near future in earlier paragraph, here again I have some more interesting and jaw-dropping uses which we will be seeing soon in further days. And they are:

  1. Solar Cells: Grephene’s layers of electrons overlaps which helps to jump the electrons between layers as it needs less light energy. With the use of grapheme solar cells will be of hundreds of thousands of times thinner and lighter than those with the use of silicon.

  2. Transistors: Basically, transistors are used in computer chips. With the use of graphene, transistor can be of thinnest possible size to few atoms or less. It will also give rise to speedy flow of electrons.

  3. Transparent screens: Manufacturers of device like plasma TVs and phones are seeking for the alternative in place of indium tin oxide which will have better conductivity, flexibility, transparency and will also cost less. As graphene is non-reflective, very transparent, very stong and thin that will be the better option for those manufactures.graphene

  4. Grephene is of an amazing bendable quality, which can be bend without breaking and that will be very useful in bendable electronic devices.

  5. Graphene can be used as graphene filter covered in tiny holes which will be just enough to let water through and small eough to keep salt out, making salt water safe for consumption.

  6. With the use of graphene, one can charge up their phone by plugging in for five seconds.

  7. Graphene can also be used for gaming purpose like in tennis, which improve the game by putting the weight where it’s more useful i.e. in the head and the grip.

  8. Graphene can also be used for clumping together radioactive waste.

  9. With the use of graphene, touchscreens of various devices could be covered/attached onto plastic rather than glass which prevents touchscreens from beaking down, as they describes super thin and unbreakable touchscreens.

  10. Use of batteries could be end, as high-power graphene supercapacitors are beneficial to replace them.

  11. Graphene could help in speeding up the process, as mega-fast upload whole terabit can be processed in just a second.

  12. Graphene could also be used in health related purpose, as they could pave the way for bonic devices in living tissues that could be connected directly to your neurons. That is more useful for spinal injuries, also people could re-learn how to use their limbs.

  13. As per the sources, recently some scientists at UC Berkeley showed that with the single sheet of graphene could produce headphones that have a frequency response comparable to a pair of Sennheisers.

  14. Graphene could also be used as a chief material to compose Smartphones of future.

  15. Graphene can also be used as sensor to diagnose disease. That sensor is formed by attaching fluorescent molecules to single strand DNA and then attaching the DNA to graphene.

We can see that there are lots of amazing uses of Graphene which will give us a better efficient uses of various electronic as well as other devices which are necessity of every human. Grephene have a potential future in next generation’s markets.

Graphene will be that technology which will give the reason for people to use various useful devices as they will be economical, efficient and effective to use them very conveniently.

New technology,

Top 10 Robotics companies of 2014

Spider robot As many Robotics companies are delivering many technological innovations in the field of automation, potential funders and investors are growing everyday for these companies making it one of the most attractive businesses as now people are beginning to accept that robotics is an investment giving long-term edges and having the long-term cost-to-benefits ratio. Today, I will be here with you at my working desk exploring the Top 10 Robotics companies of 2014. As we know, We can easily perceive why robotics industry is a high profit business. However, an investor will calculate the cons of this business in terms of its cost and riskiness. We can also easily understand why robotics is an immense field for technological research, innovation and investment and how robotics can change the world in terms of technology and automation. As Robotics has diverse investment opportunities, there are now hundreds of firms working on Robotics and thousands of people seeking investment for their ideas and innovation. Therefore, people make many category and guidelines to choose “Top 10 Robotics companies of 2014”. Therefore, my list will be based upon various financial data about these companies plus the innovation brought up by these companies in the global market of robotics which expects to make around or more than 30 billion US dollars by 2016 with high growth rates. Also in this list I am listing both the type of companies that are directly involved in robotics and that are investing in robotics.


for investing in and creating varied robotics projects that may change how the planet works completely.

Here’s a hard fact, Google now owns over 100 of companies. Most of the businesses that Google is buying since 2013 are the popular innovative companies working on Robotics, explaining the motive of Google to maximize its profit by long-term investment in Robotics The search giant also will be an internet and Television service provider by 2015 with its illustrious optical fiber technology, Google fiber can give 1 GB/ sec speed in low price than the present market price for internet and Television service which will earn Google lots of money. It appears Google is trying to diversify its investment as its revenue from ads is declining. Advertisement is the major source for its revenue. If we think about an investment option with high long-term benefits, we can’t miss out Robotics and founders of Google seem to have done a lot of brainstorming on Robotics. Therefore, Google will be leasing an airport from the NASA for research and development of robotics and rovers .Moreover, it’s buying almost every innovative company working on robotics as it has lots of money to invest in. Now the market capacity of Google is crossing US $ 400 billion with its enterprise value crossing US $350 billion, it’s is the largest investor in Robotics, putting it at the top of the list. . Here are the few companies and projects of Google that will change the future, making Google the top company working in Robotics, Deepmind Technology which will be working in designing an intelligent Robot brain mechanism , Boston Dynamics which is building diverse kind of future oriented robots ranging from the two-footed robots like Petman, four-legged Bigdog, Alphadog, Cheetah and many more to humanoid Atlas and many other types of robots, Botdolly which claims to specialize in automation, robotics and filmmaking, Holomoni which creates hi-tech wheels for Omni-directional motion, Meka robotics working on development of intelligent humanoid robots, Redwood Robotics which will be making next generation arms for future robots, Industrial Perception.Inc working on technological robots that will be used in manufacturing and logistics, Schaft robotics which bipedal robot wins top prize at DARPA’s robotics challenge ,Google’s autonomous vehicle that with success completed driver free 500000 miles milestone incident free and the list goes on and on with many other companies working on the field of automation and robotics as well as different projects that Google has acquired that will change the world.

 2. iRobots

For connecting advanced bots to the house of individuals

irobots sure deserves number two place on this list as its market capacity according to Forbes is US $1.4 billion or even more as it expects revenue of US $560-%570 million in 2014 as a public corporation. Fascinating information for those of you who don’t know about iRobots, it’s is a pioneer in designing and creating floor cleaning robots. Just remember the scene of “Breaking Bad”, a small circular robot moves here and there by itself as people party. If you didn’t recognize its name, it’s called Roomba, one among the intelligent robotic products of iRobots. iRobots is now creating diverse group of its robots related to cleaning, military and police purpose and for research and other tasks. As demand for products of iRobots are increasing, it’s been creating different types of robots for various cleaning purposes, which consist of 90 percent of its revenue as well as for military purposes and police work. Here are its major products.

  1. Roomba – Automated vacuüm cleaning robot with many advanced functions and user-friendly to use. It is easy to run, easy to hack and understand and charges itself at the end of its cleaning cycle. It now comes in different types and it’s perpetually evolving. The major next-gen Roomba for now is BRAAVA380T which is the highest selling product of the firm.Other cleaning robots include Scuba for floor washing, Verro for swimming pool, Looj for gutter cleaning each coming in various versions if available.
  2. Packbot – Series of military robots employed in various military missions involving situational awareness, intelligence, explosive ordnance disposal and other missions. A battlefield proven bot of the series, PACKBOT 510, which is worn as a backpack, gained a large contract of US $ 30 million with US army and many countries are eagerly buying series of this robot as per need.Other military and police based robots include Small Unmanned Ground Vehicle(SUGV), Warrior for bomb-disposal, battlefield casualty extraction and fire-fighting, R-gator for waypoint following with obstacle avoidance and following dismounted infantry, Negotiator for civil-response surveillance and reconnaissance, Transphibian for mine detection, surveillance and harbor defense, First look for bomb disposal and reconnaissance and other type of robots include RP-VITA for medical purposes, Ranger as a man portable UUV, Seaglider for ocean navigation in low-cost, AVA500 for video conferencing and many more.

3. Recon Robotics

For designing, engineering and producing tactical micro robot system which will save people lives.

The company is the world leader in tactical micro robot system and remotely deployed sensor system. These small mechanism systems that use varied new generation robots system are for law enforcement and military-personnel use. The United States Army, international friendly forces to US, more than 550 federal states and law enforcement agency are its users. Currently deployed and under contract, micro robot system by the company now amounts more than 4700 and is increasing. Its major products are

  1. ThrowbotrXT  used for reconnaissance can send audio and video, has infrared optical system that permits users to see in darkness, is water resistant and can survive throws up to 120 feet.
  2. Recon series – Recon series has many robots used for reconnaissance and police purpose. Some examples are Recon ScoutThrowbot LE which police uses to look for hidden threats and confined space, Recon Scout Ir which can see in complete darkness, Recon Scout UVI, and many more used for inspection to traverse valid terrain.These types of robots the company is selling is saving people lives in high risk operation and military purposes as these robots will increase situational awareness and standoff distance task like compound clearing mission, surveillance and warfare. Not only this the company also produce robotics accessories for its robotics system like Searchstick which can act as a charging station, a command station to supervise robots and robots holding place.

4.Mazor Robotics

For connecting robotics technology to surgical procedures

It is the company to see in 2014. If you had ever imagined that a robotic technology could be used in the field of surgery, than you were right.Mazor Robotics does it. It with success created robots used in orthopedic surgery and neurosurgery. It is an Israeli company with its international office in USA and Germany. It is on both on Tel-Aviv stock exchange and NASDAQ. It has installed its technology in 58 hospitals out of which 28 are in the US alone. The technology completed more than 4000 procedures till now. Mazor Robotic technology has now created its mechanism capable for the use in brain surgeries that accounts to cover increasing market of hundreds of US million dollars annually. It’ll conjointly build varied robotics systems which will be employed in varied surgical procedures within the future.

5.Esko Bionics and Touch Bionics

For innovation in prosthesis.

These are two different companies which will hold number 5 place together in the list. They have two things in common. They both work within the field of prosthesis, understood as a an artificial device that replaces missing body parts lost through coma, disease and congenital conditions and bionic, which is the study of mechanical system that functions like living organism or part of it. Touch Bionics is the popular company working within the field of prosthesis technologies and supporting services designed to prosthesis. It generally works in the upper limb deficiencies as well as the fingers. Its product includes i-limb ultra revolution and i-limb ultra with pulsing and vari-grip abilities and i-limb digits for missing fingers. The company also provides many supporting services for its product. i-limb revolution gets famous because an included iPod touch programs it which means the customers can run this device without the help of prosthetics experts. Ekso bionics is another company that creates wearable robots. It has innovated many wearable robotic bionic system used for varied functions like Exohiker with a small solar panel that facilitates hikers to carry serious masses up to 150 pounds for hours or even days, ExoClimber for climbing steep slopes and ascending stairs,HULC to carry large masses. So the company generally makes powered exoskeleton bionic devices. One of the major bionic devices of the company is Ekso or Elegs which is an automated leg that can work by itself and as the wearer desires by the use of computer interface and motion sensors.


For innovation in material handling

It is yet one more company to watch in 2014 as its vision is to optimize workflow processes in large industries and factories by increasing their productivity and reducing cost creating economic and operational advantages. The company believes these large industries can gain such advantage by using its product “Automated Guided Vehicles (AVGs)” in theirs material handling process. The company claims these products are simple, affordable, and flexible as well as vision guided. As per as its website, the company is "Manufacturer of the year in 2013" awarded by Pittsburgh Business Time as well as the top 10 robotics companies of 2013 as well as top 50 most innovative companies of the world by Fast magazine. It robotics product includes GWSL3 Walkie Stacker, GT4 Tow Tractor, GP8 Pallet Truck and GT10 Tow Tractor.

7.Norrthrop GRUMMAN


Named Forbes Company of the year in 2002, Norrthrop GRUMMAN is an American global aerospace and defense technology company. However, the company no longer appears on the Forbes list of America’s 400 Best Big Companies, but it made history on 4th February in 2011 by flying Unmanned combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) first designed for carrier based operations. Although the company revenue is declining, it reported revenues of 25.218 billion US dollars in 2012. It’s is producing aircraft carriers, military aircrafts, military vessels, missile defense system, satellites , information technology and advanced electronic sensors sand system. a.Northrop Grumman X-47B The company made United States Navy’s Unmanned Combat Air System Demonstration (UCAS-D). The product is in testing phase. Not only this, the company intends to create X-47B prototype into a battlefield ready aircraft, as the Unmanned Carrier-Launched Surveillance and Strike (UCLASS) system, which will enter service by 2019. Just imagine, upon its arrival how this aircraft will change the modern warfare and how much it gets ordered earning the company in billions.

8.Rethink Robotics

For making a robot that can excellently perform various repetitive task

Imagine what it will be like having a better worker in your company who doesn’t ask for salary. Of course, with human it’s not possible but with robots it is. This idea now seems possible with its robot Baxter, which is 3 foot tall, two armed robot with animated face, launched in September, 2012. It was first designed to do dull takes on a production line. It is in high demand by small and medium-sized companies as they don't have to program it to use it. Not only that, customers can teach it more complicated tasks in couple of minutes giving them chance to create their own application of the robot. It has sensors that allow it to sense people nearby and sense when no to do the task when something goes wrong like if it drops a tool, I stops the work and can express to people with its animated face . It is generally designed to do repetitive tasks and under supervision of humans it performs excellently.

8.Rethink Robotics

For making a robot that can excellently perform various repetitive task.

Imagine what it will be like having a better worker in your company who doesn’t ask for salary. Of course, with human it’s not possible but with robots it is. This idea now seems possible with its robot Baxter, which is 3 foot tall, two armed robot with animated face, launched in September, 2012. It was first designed to do dull takes on a production line. It is in high demand by small and medium-sized companies as they don't have to program it to use it. Not only that, customers can teach it more complicated tasks in couple of minutes giving them chance to create their own application of the robot. It has sensors that allow it to sense people nearby and sense when no to do the task when something goes wrong like if it drops a tool, I stops the work and can express to people with its animated face . It is generally designed to do repetitive tasks and under supervision of humans it performs excellently.

9.Liquid Robotics

For creating intelligent ocean watchers powered with the help of sun and sea water.

As we know, the oceans covers 2/3rd part of our earth, whatever happens to the climate, weather and overall environment of our earth, the oceans have a major role. The oceans also play a major role in keeping carbon cycle balance. Therefore, it is important to analyse different data variables regarding or affecting the oceans. Now we have a company named Liquid Robotics which is able to gather all the information about the surface of ocean such as water temperature and the atmospheric condition above such as wind speed which as we know was not practically possible before. a. Wave Glider- It is an environmentally powered autonomous robotic system which roams by itself on the oceans as programmed and collects different observations. It also holds a new world record for the longest distance travelled by any autonomous vehicle from Pacific to Australia. The company also has launched PacX challenge and PacX competition which are very popular among ocean researchers.

10.QBotix , Prox Dynamics, Honda, Aldebaran and Bosch.

There are many companies that I want to put in number 10 as many companies deserve the 10th place.

  1. Qbotix for building technology that can generate even more solar power by using monorails and robots.
  2. Prox Dynamics for building Black Hornet nano-copters that is so small that it’s can fit in your palm yet so effective for close quarter scouting and surveillance.
  3. Honda for first human shaped humanoid Asimo.
  4. Aldebaran for its intelligent humanoid “Nao”.
  5. Bosch for building hands-free mowing and motoring” Robmower” technology, which can revolutionize the present way of mowing.


Health, New technology,

Can Nano-tech could make Humans Immortal in Future ?

Nano-tech is the engineering of matter on an atomic, molecular and supramolecular scale. Nanotechnology as defined by size is very broad in the various fields of science as organic chemistry, molecular biology, surface science semiconductor physics, molecular biology, micro fabrication, etc. Traditionally, nano-tech means building things from the bottom up, with atomic accuracy. The application of nanotechnology can be work out in all one, two or three dimensions. Nanotechnology is also sometimes referred as “General-purpose Technology”, as its advanced form will have momentous impact on almost all fields and areas in general like better, safer, long-lasting products for medicine, for home, for transportation, for communication, as well as for industries and agriculture.

Let’s imagine that what the Human Life will be like, when in future microscopic machines or other nano-tech inventions will be repairing damaged cells, organs or curing diseases, backing-up our memories by travelling throughout our body. The only question arise “Is That Possible in Real??” By the mid-2000s new and serious scientific attention regarding to nanotechnology began to flourish.

Imagine a medical device that travels through the human body to seek out and destroy small clusters of cancerous cells before they can spread. Or materials much lighter than steel that possess ten times as much strength.

— U.S. National Science Foundation


As nanotech will offer more efficient features according to its use, it will have commercial use as well as the military use for making more powerful weapons and tools. Also for sure, it will not only have beneficial part but also will praise more risk for humanity. Nanotechnology will not only allow producing many high-quality products at very low cost, but also allow making new nanofactories at the same low cost at the same rapid speed.

It can be stated that any person alive in next 30 or 40 years could be almost close for being “Immortal”. According to author and futurist Ray Kurzweil, advancement of nanotechnology will shift the justification of man and machine in better way, as nanobots will flow through the human blood streams and in due course it may even replace biological blood. As well as according to him, also the time will come when humans will boost their natural cognitive powers and increase years to their lives. Also diseases like cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes and obesity could be wiped out when there will be the combination of nanotechnology and biotechnology. If those nanobots replaced biological blood then the wounds will be healed almost instantly. Nanoparticles are already in use to blast cancer cells in mice with “tumor busting” genes as a new hope for those inoperable tumors. It has also been reported that ovarian cancer has been killed with the treatment based on nanotechnology.

According to the author who wrote The Age of Spiritual Machines and The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology, we will be immortal in next 35 to 40 years.

Google, New technology,

Google smart contact Lens that Measure Glucose Level

Google introducing smart contact lens lets Diabetics Measure their Glucose Levels

As we all know that Google is without any doubt a full-blown hardware company, but recently Google has announced about a new project "smart contact lens" that helps diabetics to measure their glucose levels. This recent Google X project is different than those of their previous projects.

Google lense

Company while it's announcement also unveils the secret behind how it works. These contact lens uses tiny wireless chip which is embedded in between two soft layers of lens material and a miniaturized glucose sensor. Those chips and sensor helps to measure glucose level with the help of wearer's tears. The company says it is currently testing prototypes of this contact lens and also working with FDA for production of real products of those prototypes. These lenses are not actually the miniaturized version of glass because these are for those diabetics who are faded up with the painful testing methods like testing blood droplets, pricking a finger tips multiple of times in a day because glucose levels change frequently with normal activity like exercising or eating or even sweating.

According to Google, the sensor fitted in the lens take about a reading per second which works with the tiny LED light in the lens that warns the wearer when their glucose level crosses than a set threshold. Those sensors are so tiny that they look like a bit of "Glitter". Google wants this lens to act as an early warning device for diabetics. As today diabetes is growing so fast among people that in a survey it has been found that, it affects one in every 19 people over the world.  Uncontrolled blood sugar causes huge risk in life and leads to lots of dangerous complications which can either be some short-term as well as longer term, including damage to the kidneys, heart and eyes.

While this is new view for Google, the idea of a contact lens for specifically measuring glucose levels whereas it is not new at all for Microsoft and the University of Washington worked on a similar project previously in 2011. Co-creator Babek Parviz and fellow co-founder Brian Otis were at the University of Washington and has contributed to that project as well. The company wants partners to develop these lenses and also build apps to make the measurements available to wearer and their doctor. Still there is dilemma, whether this lens will work according in the planned way but it is sure that it is one of the good projects of Google. Google has tried to solve a long-standing medical problem “Diabetes” There's no word on when this lens might be a reality, or even if it'll work as planned, but it's good to see Google using its engineering prowess to try and solve a long-standing medical problem.

This lens will be the huge help for those people who are fighting with the numbers of problem caused by the diabetes. As this will help to indicate and warn them about their glucose levels. So, diabetics can get rid of those painful traditional methods of checking glucose level every day. Let’s hope this new concept of Google may get the huge market over the world. And, soon it will be bringing this technology in market by finding the right partners to cope up with.