An electric vehicle is a type of vehicle which uses electric motors for power. The power can be supplied to the electric vehicles through self-contained battery or generator which will convert fuel to electricity or through a collector system. An electric vehicle consists of electric aircraft, rail and road vehicles, underwater and surface vessels and electrically powered space vehicles.
After when Slovak-Hungarian priest Anyos Jedlik made the first viable motor with commutator, rotor and stator in 1827 tit was then when the electric motive power started. In the University of Groningen again in 1835 built a small scale electric car. In between approximately 1832 to 1839 Robert Anderson invented the first simple electric carriage which was powered by a non-rechargeable primary cell. In the US, 28% of the cars were electric cars on the road by the time of 1900. After that in the 20th century electric rail and cars transport had become the majority in the market.
Electronic vehicles are different than the fossil fuel powered vehicles. The electricity which is consumed by the EVs were generated by a wide range of sources like nuclear power and fossils fuels also by renewable sources like solar power, and the wind power, by tidal power and so on. Because of the advantages of the EVs it has attracted the interest of the market rather than the petroleum based transportation infrastructure.
There are many ways to provide electricity of varying ecological desirability, efficiency and cost.
The direct connection to generation plants is common among electric trains, trolley bus and in some trolley trucks. EVs collects power from the electric power strips which buried under the road surface through electromagnetic induction.
The on-board electricity is generated for vehicles by using diesel engine, fuel cell, nuclear energy and renewable sources like solar power for diesel-electric locomotive, fuel cell vehicle, aircraft carriers and solar vehicles respectively.
Though it is possible to make any kind of vehicle with the help of an electric power train but there are mainly four types of the electric vehicles.
? Ground vehicles: It is also sub categorized into following types.
• Plug-in electric vehicle: Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is a type of motor vehicle which can be recharged by any external source of electricity like wall sockets. The produced electricity is stored in a rechargeable battery packs drives.
• Hybrid EVS: It is the combination of a conventional power train with some form of electric propulsion.
• On and off road EVs: These are the vehicles which are used in the road transportation. They include electric trucks, electric motorcycles, electric buses, trolleybuses, Off-road vehicles etc.
• Railborne EVs: The electric trains do not need to carry heavy internal batteries. They use a good power to weight ratios and its proven to be very helpful. This allows giving the high speed to the trains.
• Space rover vehicles: Various unmanned or manned vehicles are used to explore the Moon or other planets of the solar system.
? Airborne EVs: From the era of aviation the aircraft having electric power has received a great deal of experimentation. The currently flying electric aircraft includes aerial vehicles which has two kinds: manned and unmanned.
? Seaborne EVs: During the 20th century electric boats were very popular. The Submarines uses nuclear power or they use the fuel cells to run it.
? Electrically powered spacecraft: Solar panels, the new invention i.e the nuclear panels and batteries are the power sources for these space crafts.
Advantages and disadvantages of EVs
Electric vehicles has a number of advantages of the. It helps in protecting the environment. They also produce comparatively very less noise pollutions. By the use of EVs we can save a lot of energy. The use of renewable sources is cheap to use. It has a significant benefit to the environment by the use the renewable sources. In Nepal there are a special kind of electric vehicle named SAFA TEMPO which helps to produce lower pollution. These vehicles are powered by using batteries rather than using gas or oil which is very economical as well. It is also very smooth to use. As the produced electricity remains within the country or region where it is produced the EVs gives high degree of energy resilience. Electric vehicles have three times higher energy efficiency compared to the internal combustion engine vehicles.
Hence it has a lot of advantages compared to the internal combustion vehicles it has a great future ahead. It is also Eco friendly and also uses energy which can be renewable and do not scare at all. It helps to make people’s life easier and more comfortable and also it’s a sheer green movement which can prove to be good for the environment too. This concept must give more emphasis for this generation and coming generations if human survival a key question.