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Erica Mena Plays Detective When It Comes To Dating

Believe it or not, Love & Hip Hop star  Erica Mena showed up on a spread of XXL when she was only 16. What’s more, she is not likewise a shy being with regards to her dating life. She is truly a straightforward personality who likes to approach the individual whom she likes directly subsequent to noticing the individual.

“it’s not even about the physical.” “I’ll go to the club and watch a guy all night and peep the little things, like the way he goes to the bar, how he mingles with his friends,” she says. “It’s rare, but I’ll step to a dude in a minute. From there, you know I gotta put it on him to let him know where it’s at and then from there you work and see where it goes.”

-Extracted from her bio on

If you may, her past relationship includes Fabolous, DJ Envy, Havoc, Scott Storch (2005-2006), Rich Dollaz (2012-2013), Cyn Santana (2013-2014),  Chinx Drugz (2013-2014) and Shad Moss, a.k.a Bow Wow (2014-2015, no longer engaged).

The most intriguing prospect of the cluster will be her Love and Hip Hop Season 4 co-star and ex-sweetheart Cyn Santana, with whom Erica broke up before saying yes to the big question from Face Off rapper Shad Gregory Moss, a.k.a Bow Wow.

Lamentably, Erica and Bow Wow ended their 2006 started Pisces-Scorpio fairytale love story on a pitiful note in late 2015, constantly bashing one another on a personal level on social networking sites.

Anyway, judging by their respective social networking activities, 2016 seems to be the year Erica and Shade will finally try to ignore one another.

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10 important lady of history

From the ancient time the world has been male dominated society. Though in this male dominated society female made their own name. Women have grown stronger than past. They can either make or break anyone’s life. They have the power to rule the world. There have been many ladies who have ruled the world for many years, who are far better than men and who are very important in our history. Some of the important ladies of the history are as follows:

Mother Teresa:

Mother TeresaMother Teresa is one of the most important and well known ladies of in the history. She had spent a lot of her life in India she had Indian citizenship. She was of Roman Catholic. For more than 45 years of her life she had spent in caring poor as well as sick people. For her work she had also won Nobel price.


She is an American actress, singer, song writer as well as an entrepreneur. She is not as much as important ladies in the history but she is well known around the world due to her fame. She is very hard working because of which she has won so much fame. She has never stopped creating new things for which she is known.

Rosa Parks:

She was a civil rights activist. She was called “Mother of the Modern Day Civil Rights Movement” only because of her work. Firstly she had come in highlight because she had refused to give her seat to a white passenger by disobeying the bus driver. Her that acts was the biggest movement against the racial discrimination.

Elizabeth I of England:

Another important lady of the history is Queen Elizabeth. She was very different from other queens of the era. In her whole life she was never married. She is also known as “Virgin Queen”. The period which she had ruled is known as “Elizabeth Era”. She had replaced the Roman Catholic and had established the Protestantism. Because of which she was never married she was last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty.

Florence Nightingale:

Florence Nightingale was the first woman who modernized the nursing. She is also known as “The Lady with the Lamp”. At the time of Crimean War she had served many people of which she became famous. In her birthday the International Nursing Day is celebrated. Because of her belief that the more death is due to lack of poor nutrition, she reduced the death rate by providing them nutritious food.


Tomyris was the queen Massagetae. She is known for defeating as well as killing the Persian emperor Cyrus and also for wining her country. She had sent a letter by challenging the Cyrus because he had captured her son. In the fight he was killed and the Persians were defeated by great casualties. She had kept Cyrus’s head till her whole life and also drank wine from it until her death.


Cleopatra was the last ruler of the Ancient Egypt. She was the woman with beauty and brain. She was one of the members of the Ptolemaic dynasty. She was a great ruler. She had co ruled with her father, Ptolemy XII Auletes and after her father’s death she co ruled with her brothers. After the marriage she became the sole ruler.

Eva Peron:

Eva was the First Lady of Argentina. After her marriage she became most powerful woman within the Pro-Peronist trade unions. She was the most politically powerful woman at her time. She had made homes for poor and homeless people. She had also provided free health care to the whole citizens. Because of her work she soon became very popular and her name appeared everywhere.


She was one of the most powerful and successful female ruler. She had ruled much longer than any other woman has ruled. She had reestablished the trade networks which had been disrupted. She had made a foreign policy mainly focusing about peace and had made a successful military campaign.

Hillary Clinton:

Hillary was the first wife of President Bill Clinton. She is the first lady of the United States. She has contributed a lot in the health sector as well as in political sector. She is the United States Secretary. She had made history by running President herself.

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10 historical most powerful women of all time

Women, she is the most beautiful creature created by nature. They are not so weak as they seem to be. Women are much powerful and strong than they seem to be. They can do anything what they want to do. There are a lot of women who had contributed to develop the world. Here are some of them.


Hatshepsut(Born: 1508 BC – died: 1458 BC): In the ancient time Hatshepsut was one of the most powerful woman. In the Egyptian history Hatshepsut had ruled longer than any other woman. She was the fifth ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. Later on after the death of her father she began rule with her husband. She was one of the most successful queens of the Ancient Egypt. She had married to her half-brother Thutmose II.

2.Eleanor of Aquitaine

Eleanor-of-Aquitaine(Born: 1122 –  died: 1204):  During the High Middle Age in Europe Eleanor was one of the most powerful and wealthiest women. After the death of her father ultimately she became the ruler. At that time also her family was very well educated. During the 12th Aquitaine were the wealthiest and the largest province of France.


3.Empress Theodora

Empress-Theodora(born: 500 AD – died: 548 AD) : At the time of Middle Ages Empress was one of the most powerful and influential women. She had married to Justinian I. She took power only after the death of her husband. She had participated in promoting women’s right in Constantinople, one of the world’s largest cities. She had also provided right to women for property ownership divorce. Because of cancer she died in 548 AD.





4.Isabella I of Castile

Isabella-I-of-Castile(Born: 1451 – died: 1504): In Spanish history Isabella was considered one of the most powerful yet controversial queens. Until her husband’s death she co-ruled with her husband. Isabella had contributed a lot in making Spain a world power by sponsoring Christopher Columbus’s voyages to the Western hemisphere.





5.Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth-I-of-England(Born: 1533; died: 1603): Elizabeth was the queen who was very different from other queens who had ruled over the time. She was never married. She is also known as “Virgin Queen”. She had replaced Roman Catholic and established Protestantism. As she had never married so she was the last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty. Her the period is known as “Elizabeth Era”.





6.Catherine II of Russia

Catherine-II-of-Russia(Born: 1729; died: 1796): She was the queen of the world’s largest country, Russia. She is also known as Catherine the Great. She was married to Peter III. In 1767 she had reformed the system by designing a legislative commission. She is known well expanding the Russian empire. She had also contributed in art, politics and had also made a successful foreign policy. Her rule ended with her death.





7.Queen Victoria

(Born: 1819; died: 1901): The history is Queen Victoria. She was not only the queen but also was a head of the vast colonial British Empire. She had ruled over six continents and countries like India, South Africa, Sudan, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada etc. She had contributed massively contributed in social reforms and in politics in the British Empire as well as in United Kingdom.


Cixi(Born: 1835; died: 1908): Cixi was the ruler of China. She had controlled China very effectively for 47 years. In her time she was the most powerful women in the world. She was also the last ruler of her dynasty. After three years of her death republic was initiated in 1st January 1912.






9.Ginni Rometty

(Born: 1957; present) : The present one of the most powerful woman is Ginni. She an American business woman. She is CEO, Chairman and President of IBM. She is the most powerful business women since a decade. She has married to a principal investor of Bam Oil Company, Mark Anthony Rometty.

10. Susan Wojcicki

(Born; 1968; present): Susan is an American businesswoman. She is the CEO of YouTube. She is called the most important person in advertising. She is also the most important googler. In 2011 she was named in the “List of the World’s 100 Most Powerful Women” by Forbes Magazine.


10 foods to help your height increase

Everyone is concerned with their. Due to low height people suffer from many problems especially they suffer from low self-esteem. Women completely attain their height by the age of 18/19 where as men continue to grow till they reach 265 years old. There are many products available in the market which helps to increase height, but most of them do not work for everybody because of which people feels depressed. The main cause that people have short height is due to their genes. But the main way to increase height naturally is by eating healthy. By eating healthy diet anyone can easily and healthy gain height. Here are 10 foods which will help you to increase your height.

1.     Milk: Milk is a vital drink that helps in growth and maintenance of the strong bones. Milk actually acts as the height booster. It helps to keep bones strong and prevents them from breaking easily. Milk contains vitamin A which helps to absorb and preserve the calcium better. It is the very good source of protein that helps in the growth of cells of the body.
2.     Fruits and Vegetables: It is very important to eat fresh vegetables and fruits every day. There are many advantages to fresh fruits and vegetables, one of them are it helps to increase height. The fresh fruits and vegetables contain a good amount of vitamins, folates, fiber and potassium. The contained vitamin A helps to develop bones and tissues. The good source of vitamin A is carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes, papaya, broccoli, apricots and watermelon and mango.

3.    Minerals:  Minerals like phosphorus, iodine, magnesium, iron and manganese plays a vital role in increasing the height and also body growth too. Calcium is the essential mineral which helps to increase the height of a child and also makes bones strong. Foods like excessive salt, fat, sugar, coffee, carbonated drinks should be strictly avoided. These foods acts as calcium inhibitors and affects in the growth.
4.     Grains: Another important food that helps in the growth and development of the height and body respectively is grain. It is the store house of energy. They are rich in calories which is important during the growth year of children. Grains are very rich in iron, magnesium, vitamins, iron, selenium and fiber. For example whole grain pasta, whole wheat and brown rice are the foods which help to gain height.
5.     Oatmeal: It is the best food that contains a wonderful source of protein. It is food which helps to boost the growth rate of height. It also a very good source of protein and also helps to reduce fat and only increase muscle. Encouraging children to have oatmeal can make them much healthier and they can gain good height too.
6.     Eggs: Again it is also a very good source of protein. Eggs are also rich on Vitamin B12. The white part of the egg contains 100% protein but yolk should be avoided because it contains fat which is not good for health. To increase height it is necessary to have at least 3 eggs every day.
7.     Chicken: In animal based food chicken is one of the best sources of protein. It provides a great amount of protein which helps to build tissues as well as muscles. Even if parents are vegetarian they can encourage their child to have chicken so that they can enjoy food as well as their body can grow properly.


8.   Soybeans: Among the entire vegetarian foods soybean contains the highest amount of proteins. The pure protein which soybean contains helps to improve tissue as well as bone too. To increase height properly 50 grams of soybeans is highly recommended every day. People who do not eat non veg they can fulfill their intake of protein by having soybean.
9.    Dairy based food: Dairy foods should be consumed every day to increase height effectively. Dairy foods like yoghurt, paneer, cheese and cottage cheese are very rich source of vitamin A, B, D and E as well. They are also rich in calcium as well as in protein. Deficiency of vitamin D can affect in growth of height.
10.   Fish: Tuna and Salmon are the two types of fish which are extremely rich in protein and Vitamin D. By having these food one can boost their growth rate. Fish lovers can have these fish so that they can increase their height. Fish also helps to reduce belly fats.

To increase height naturally and healthy one should try to include these foods in their meal. You can also do some exercise to increase height.




















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Future of electronic vehicles

electronic vehiclesAn electric vehicle is a type of vehicle which uses electric motors for power. The power can be supplied to the electric vehicles through self-contained battery or generator which will convert fuel to electricity or through a collector system. An electric vehicle consists of electric aircraft, rail and road vehicles, underwater and surface vessels and electrically powered space vehicles.

After when Slovak-Hungarian priest Anyos Jedlik made the first viable motor with commutator, rotor and stator in 1827 tit was then when the electric motive power started. In the University of Groningen again in 1835 built a small scale electric car. In between approximately 1832 to 1839 Robert Anderson invented the first simple electric carriage which was powered by a non-rechargeable primary cell. In the US, 28% of the cars were electric cars on the road by the time of 1900. After that in the 20th century electric rail and cars transport had become the majority in the market.
Electronic vehicles are different than the fossil fuel powered vehicles. The electricity which is consumed by the EVs were generated by a wide range of sources like nuclear power and fossils fuels also by renewable sources like solar power, and the wind power, by tidal power and so on. Because of the advantages of the EVs it has attracted the interest of the market rather than the petroleum based transportation infrastructure.

Electricity sources
There are many ways to provide electricity of varying ecological desirability, efficiency and cost.
The direct connection to generation plants is common among electric trains, trolley bus and in some trolley trucks. EVs collects power from the electric power strips which buried under the road surface through electromagnetic induction.
The on-board electricity is generated for vehicles by using diesel engine, fuel cell, nuclear energy and renewable sources like solar power for diesel-electric locomotive, fuel cell vehicle, aircraft carriers and solar vehicles respectively.
Though it is possible to make any kind of vehicle with the help of an electric power train but there are mainly four types of the electric vehicles.
? Ground vehicles: It is also sub categorized into following types.
Plug-in electric vehicle: Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is a type of motor vehicle which can be recharged by any external source of electricity like wall sockets. The produced electricity is stored in a rechargeable battery packs drives.
Hybrid EVS: It is the combination of a conventional power train with some form of electric propulsion.
On and off road EVs: These are the vehicles which are used in the road transportation. They include electric trucks, electric motorcycles, electric buses, trolleybuses, Off-road vehicles etc.
Railborne EVs: The electric trains do not need to carry heavy internal batteries. They use a good power to weight ratios and its proven to be very helpful. This allows giving the high speed to the trains.
Space rover vehicles: Various unmanned or manned vehicles are used to explore the Moon or other planets of the solar system.
? Airborne EVs: From the era of aviation the aircraft having electric power has received a great deal of experimentation. The currently flying electric aircraft includes aerial vehicles which has two kinds: manned and unmanned.
? Seaborne EVs: During the 20th century electric boats were very popular. The Submarines uses nuclear power or they use the fuel cells to run it.
? Electrically powered spacecraft: Solar panels, the new invention i.e the nuclear panels and batteries are the power sources for these space crafts.


Advantages and disadvantages of EVs
Electric vehicles has a number of advantages of the. It helps in protecting the environment. They also produce comparatively very less noise pollutions. By the use of EVs we can save a lot of energy. The use of renewable sources is cheap to use. It has a significant benefit to the environment by the use the renewable sources. In Nepal there are a special kind of electric vehicle named SAFA TEMPO which helps to produce lower pollution. These vehicles are powered by using batteries rather than using gas or oil which is very economical as well. It is also very smooth to use. As the produced electricity remains within the country or region where it is produced the EVs gives high degree of energy resilience. Electric vehicles have three times higher energy efficiency compared to the internal combustion engine vehicles.
Hence it has a lot of advantages compared to the internal combustion vehicles it has a great future ahead. It is also Eco friendly and also uses energy which can be renewable and do not scare at all. It helps to make people’s life easier and more comfortable and also it’s a sheer green movement which can prove to be good for the environment too. This concept must give more emphasis for this generation and coming generations if human survival a key question.

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Electronic Cigarette

Electronic CigaretteAn electronic cigarette is a battery powered vaporizer. It feels similar to tobacco smoking. Unlike cigarette smoke electronic cigarettes produce an aerosol which is known as vapor. Generally e-cigarette has a heating element which atomizes a liquid solution which is called e-liquid. An electronic liquid is a mixture of glycerin, nicotine, propylene glycol and flavoring. An electronic cigarette is much safer than tobacco cigarette in terms of tobacco use minimization. The main reason behind using an electronic cigarette is to quit smoking cigarettes and to cut down their smoking habit.

Due to limited evidence the risk and benefit of an electronic cigarette are uncertain. As an electronic cigarette contains less toxic substances than traditional cigarettes, it is safer than traditional cigarettes. The serious effect of an electronic cigarette is mouth inflammation, throat inflammation, cough, nausea and vomiting.

The earliest electronic cigarette was made by Herbert A. Gilbert which he named it as smokeless non-tobacco cigarette. It contained moist paper and flavored air heated nicotine solution for cigarette like taste but it was never commercialized. After that a Chinese pharmacist named Hon Lik invented the electronic cigarette. Later on in 2003 he made a cigarette using piezoelectric ultrasound emitting element which used to vaporize the pressurized jet of liquid which contained nicotine diluted in propylene glycol solution. The cigarette made used to produce smoke like vapor which can be inhaled. It provided a vehicle for nicotine delivery into bloodstream through lungs. After that various design of the electronic cigarettes were introduced and were commercialized.
As time passes many electronic cigarettes were continued to evolve from first generation to third generation. In 2006 “cartomizer’ , a mechanism which is used to integrate the heating coil into liquid chamber was invented by British entrepreneurs named Umer and Tariq Sheikh. Later on in 2007 a new device named “cigalike” was launched in the UK in Gamucci brand, which is now adopted by majority. Now the international tobacco company have recognized the potential of new market and are actively involving in the production and marketing of the electronic cigarette.
Generally electronic cigarettes are of cylindrical shape with wide array. There are three types of electronic cigarettes namely; cigalikes, which looks similar to cigarettes, eGos, which is bigger than cigalikes and mods, which is assembled from basic parts of existing product.

An electronic cigarette has four generations i.e first generation, second generation, third generation and fourth generation (future).

First generation: The first generation of e-cigarettes is called “cigalikes” because it looks like tobacco cigarettes. This generation e-cigarette can be designed as a single unit which contains coil, battery and filling saturated with an electronic juice in a single tube. And can be disposed after the battery is charge less or the liquid has depleted.

Second generation: The second generation e-cigarettes are larger than first generation e-cigarettes. It looked less like tobacco cigarettes. They contained larger non removable batteries which can be charged with a USB charger.

Third generation: Third generation of this E-cig includes 2 modes viz mechanical and variable voltage device in the battery section of the box. They are generally made up of wood, aluminum, steel or brass. Hardware can be modified to increase flavor according to the user needs. The fourth generation is coming to the market very soon and is going to be in the digital format.

People, :
People nowadays are addicted to the bad habits very easily and thus cigarettes addiction is not new too . So, for a solution of this serious problem E-cigs were made and this has helped people cope up with the demand of having cigarettes and plus it does not affect the held in that adverse way as compared to the E-cigs. E-cigs though contain nicotine and are highly addictive and thus it can help for stopping the habit but not completely remove since it provides nicotine in adequate dosages. It is not recommended for heart patients and might harm the arteries as per the survey.
E-cigarettes are although safer than the cigarettes but its not that these don’t harm. As said by Drummoned “E-Cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes not unharmful”. Much information about this has not been known and we are studying about its long term effects and exposure in the society.

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10 Sciences behind making making best relationship?

“Love” it is the most beautiful and pure feelings in the world. It is the most intense feeling known to the human beings. It is the power which can motivate a person to get success in life. Love can change a bad person to good. But many relationship fails due to misunderstanding between couples. Sometimes they fail to understand each others feelings and unfortunately the misunderstanding takeover. Many people think it’s easy to make a good relationship but truth is that it takes lots of effort and maturity to handle a relationship and make it good for long time.

best relationshipHere are some of the science behind making best relationship:

Respect and admire your partner:

Everybody has some flaws but love is what to accept a person with their flaws and be happy. A research has shown that positive attitude towards your partner will be helpful to make a good and a very romantic relationship. Not only it helps to make good relationship, it also helps you to feel better about yourself and it will help to lead relationship towards happiness and success.

Protect and support the freedom:

When someone is in relationship more responsibility comes compared to single ones. One should learn to respect others feelings and should not hold them very tightly literally. One should give some space to their partner so that they can have their personal life too. One should have full right to make their decision.

To understand partner’s wishes, fears, dreams and desires:

One should be very sensitive and responsiveness towards the partner’s needs or desire. Understanding what your partner want, dreams or wishes helps to make a relationship healthy and good. It is very important to understand your partner to make a relationship successful.

To meet partner’s need: It is always important to know what your partner needs.

It seems to easier to say but sometimes it is very difficult to give your partner what they need. You might have to sacri
ice many things to meet your partner’s need. At such situation one should act very sensitively and think about their happiness and feel satisfied rather than feeling for your sacrificed things. This will also help much to make relationship.

Always be there whenever your partner needs you:

Always and always be there for your partner whenever your partner need you. Sometimes may be you are the only one on whom they can rely. Always support your partner whenever they need you.

Support your partner’s ambitions and goals:

To support your partner’s goals and ambitions will help them to get motivated towards their work and they can achieve their goals. Always hold your partner’s hand and make them motivated towards their work. By doing so it will help your partner getting motivate and also increase respect for you in their heart.

Keep life full of passionate and excited:

Most of the relationships are exciting and passionate only at starting point and then slowly the passion towards each other decrease as the time passes. But one should make their life passionate and excited to keep their love young. One should keep traveling, share interest and spent some quality time together alone to make relationship strong and passionate.

Never let down your partner during tough time:

Most of the relationship fails when they face tough time or face some misunderstanding between them. Always hold each others hand or your partner’s hand during the tough time and show them you will not let your partner’s hand. If you face any problem face it together and this will make the bond you share stronger day by day.

Treat your partner with love and kindness:

The more you will be loveable and kind towards your partner the more you will win their trust and love. Make your relationship more strong by contributing love and care. The one of the key to success of relationship is to treat your partner with love and kindness.

Show that how luck you are to have your partner:

Last but not the least always try to make your partner feel that how much lucky and happy you are to have the person as your partner. When your partner will feel appreciated they will be happier and committed towards the relation.These things are there which are to be considered if anyone wants to have good relationship with the one they love. Love is an intimate feeling in which two souls in a single heart and bests due to one anothers’ happiness.Loving is a one thing and being responsible towards it is the next level . We often forget these small things and create a mishap around two individuals with common feeling of divine energy called “Love”.



What is heart attack ?

Heart attack is the medical condition in which your heart doesn’t receive enough amount of oxygen-rich blood due to cholesterol and fats in the arteries which makes the flow of blood difficult and slow. In such case the heart muscle begin to get injured and destroyed due to lack of oxygen and slowly it dies.

Heart attack is the common name for myocardial infraction (medical term).

Process of Heart attack

Our heart muscle needs the oxygen-rich blood continuously to nurture it. Coronary arteries help to supply all the blood required to the heart. If we are diagnosed with coronary artery disease then our arteries gets narrow and restrict the blood to flow easily. The fats, protein, inflammatory cells and calcium form plaques in the arteries. Plaque are of different sizes and harder in surface and softer inside.

The outer shell begins to crack when it gets harder. This situation is known as plaque rupture. The platelets help to clot the rupture and in this process it forms the blood clot around the plaque. But if the clot is bigger and it blocks the blood flowing towards the blood. In this condition the heart suffers the lack of oxygen. This causes the permanent damage to the heart muscle which is death of heart muscle cells. When this medical condition is suffered by any people it is known as heart attack.

The above mentioned is the causes of heart attack for the maximum number of people in America and all around the world. But this may not only be the cause of heart attack. Sometimes it can occur due to muscular contraction of a coronary artery. This situation is known as coronary spasm. The arteries reduces the blood flow in the muscle of the heart and heart may stop pumping and people may get heart attack. But this process is unusual.


How much damage heart attack cause to the heart muscle?

The extent of damage cause by the heart attack to the heart depends upon the size of plaque. It also depends on the period between treatment and injury time.

The damaged heart muscle start to heal suddenly after the heart attack take place but it takes couple of month to heal completely. This process is just like the ordinary skin wound and heart muscle will also get scar but the new formed tissues are not as flexible as the previous tissue. This means our heart will not pump the blood as strongly as before. The pumping capacity of heart will be reduced more if the scar is bigger.

First aid for Heart attack

The best thing possible you can do to victim of heart attack is to take him/her to the hospital as soon as possible. For the chest pain that victim feels you can give him nitroglycerin. You can dial 911 for emergency. Until the victim reaches the hospital you can give him/her CPR if he is unconscious. You must not forget to loosen his clothes.


Drugs, Health,

Is hookah smoking safer than cigarette smoking?


Hookah is a smoking device which was origin from our past in the fifteenth century. It has been used in Middle East India but now recently it has been popular in western culture countries (Americas and Europe).

It has been reported that like other terms smoking tobacco leads to addiction. We are well known about these things but we do not care about it. So it has been the growing problem of the world.

Some of the diseases like lungs cancer, different infectious diseases are being our day to day problem. The world health org has reported that among another disease in pregnant women the use of addiction causes fetal growth and different diseases in the newborn babies.

It was also mentioned that hookah smoking contains several toxic substances that can affect both the primary and passive smokers, so we did this to determine the complication associated with its use. Further, we must be aware of this thing and make our health fit and fine.

It is harmful to smoke hookah than cigarettes in comparison but both of them harms to our lungs. We can only say that hookah harms more than cigarettes. Hookah is named as water pipes or hobble bobble.

It is harmful to smoke hookah than the cigarettes because one time in the healing of hookah is hundred times of cigarettes. It has tobacco and charcoal on the top that burns the tobacco which sucks the smoke through the water into the tube than to the user’s lungs. Due to careless on of safety study of 2007 American teen found those who smoke the water pipes is eight times more than the cigarette. If we focus on our new generation the youth are being the mass victim of all over the world. The report of American lungs association approves that 16% of higher scholar’s and 25 to 40% of colleges are in addiction. In comparison 26% of schools smoke hookah.

Hookah Smoking Compared With Cigarette Smoking

  • While several hookah smokers may think this practice is less harmful than smoking cigarettes, hookah smoking has many of the same health risks as cigarette smoking.
  • Water pipe smoking delivers nicotine to the same highly addictive drug found in other tobacco products.
  • The tobacco in hookahs is burned and the smoke is at least as toxic as cigarette smoke.
  • The amount of smoke inhaled during hookah session is about 90,000 milliliters, compared with 500–600 ml inhaled when smoking a cigarette.
  • Hookah smokers may be at risk for some of the same diseases as cigarette smokers. These include a bad feature in life so say no drugs.

People believe the water in the hookah filters the tobacco. Hookah smokers fill smoother because the temperature is lower and has high humidity. As any other tobacco products hookah is more harmful. The University of Mare Land says hookah contains a higher label of carbon dioxide. Smoking its self is bad and even worse. The study of cancer association when testing the urine of both they found a chemical that damages the red blood cells, nervous system, eye, throat, and nose. Some label in hookah smoker is more than the cigarette smoker.

The world heath org found the average section last between 20 to 80 minutes. When you inhale 50 to 100 milliliters of smoking cigarettes. Puffing on hookah for a section its 90 thousand milliliters. That’s for the hundred invisible of cigarettes. So for hookah is a proof low birth rate.



  • Hookah use began in ancient Persia and India.
  • Today, hookah cafes are gaining in popularity around the world, including Britain, France, Russia, the Middle East, and the United States.
  • Hookah use by youth and college students is increasing.
  • Other small studies of young adults have found high prevalence of hookah use among college students in the United States. These studies show past-year use ranging from 22% to 40%.



Parkinson’s disease, Symptoms and Treatments

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the disorder of central nervous system. It is also known as Idiopathic or primary Parkinsonism. This disease starts from the death of dopamine generating cells in the substantia nigra which is a region of midbrain. But the cause of the death of this cell is still unknown. The early symptoms of this disease are related to the movement of body. In the early stages this disease may slow down your movement. The shaking and rigidity of body also occurs in early stage. And later this disease cause behavioral problem and depression is very common for the patients. It also causes sensory and emotional problems. This disease is more common in elderly people after the age of 50.
In the early symptoms of the disease modern treatments can be effective. In the early stage the use of Levodopa and dopamine agonists can be effective. But as the disease progress and the dopamine generating cells continue to get lost the treating become ineffective.
English Doctor James Parkinson published the description in a detail manner in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy in 1817. The disease is named after him. This disease affects human as well as other primates.
After Alzheimer it is the second largest neuro generative epidemiology in the world affecting more than six million people around world.

Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease

This disease mainly affects movements of body by producing motor symptoms. The motor symptoms of are:-
Tremor: – Tremor means shaking. This disease cause the shaking in the parts of the body. It is the most well-known symptom. Almost every individual containing this disease contains this symptom. It mostly effects on the distal part of the limb and appears only on single leg or arm.

Bradykinesia: – Bradykinesia is the slowness of movement. It creates the problem of performing daily task which needs the fine motor control like writing and getting dressed. It is disabling symptom.

Rigidity: – This disease increases the muscle tone which causes the stiffness and resistance to limb movement. It is linked with the joint pain. In early stages of this diseases it is irregular and affect the muscles of neck and shoulder. Later it affects the whole body parts and decrease the ability to move.

Postural instability: – Postural instability is the condition where there is impaired balance. The patients suffers frequent falls. This symptom is not seen in early stages.

Other motor symptoms like unusual facial expression, voice disorders and small handwriting is seen.
Other symptoms like behavioral changes, oily skin, excessive sweating, and sleeping problems are also seen. Other changes includes sensation of pain, numbness and alerted sexual functions.


The exact or specific cause of parkinson’s disease  is not known but some factors have been associated. Factors like head injuries and pesticides exposure and heavy metal exposure are the risk factors. However they are not the exact cause.
This disease is non-genetic disorder.


The consumption of caffeine is protective against PD which reduces the risk. Tobacco consuming also reduce the risk of PD but affect the quality of life.
Vitamin c and D are helpful to protect against this disease.


This disease has no cure but medication, surgery and exercises are helpful to get free from the symptoms. The treatment done for Parkinson’s disease are: –
Levodopa: – Levodopa is widely used treatment for this disease. The motor symptoms in body is due to lack of dopamine. Dopa decarboxylase converts the levodopa into dopamine in dopaminergic neurons and diminish the motor symptoms temporarily.
But the overuse of levodopa causes side effects like joint stiffness and nausea. Dopa decarboxylase inhibitors are given with the combination of levodopa to reduce the side effects. Benserazide and Carbidopa are dopa decarboxylase inhibitors.

Dopamine agonists: – Dopamine agonist like bromocriptine, pergolide, lisuride, apomorphine, piribedil, cabergoline, ropinirole and pramipexole bind to dopaminergic post-synaptic receptors to the brain. Dopamine agonists work like levodopa. It helps in reducing motor syndrome.
The treatment with dopamine agonists is very useful but it has also side effects like Insomnia, constipation, nausea and hallucinations. This treatment is expensive than levodopa but very effective. Dopamine agonists are suggested for earlier treatment.

MAO-B inhibitors: – Selegiline and rasagiline are the MAO-B inhibitors which increase the level of dopamine. It is useful in improving the motor syndrome. This treatment is less effective than levodopa and have more adverse side effects.

Other drugs: – Anticholinergic and amantadine are other drugs which can be useful for treatment.
But these drugs are not suggested for quality treatment.

Surgery: – There has been an advanced improvements of surgical techniques than before. Surgery is required for the patients for whom the drug therapy is not effective.

Rehabilitation: – The speech and mobility problems can be reduced with rehabilitation and physical exercise. Physical exercise can improve strength, flexibility and quality of life. Breathing exercises are important for chest wall mobility.